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SN 2012fr: Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves of a Type Ia Supernova Observed within a Day of Explosion

SN 2012fr: Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves of a Type Ia Supernova Observed within a Day of Explosion
SN 2012fr: Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves of a Type Ia Supernova Observed within a Day of Explosion
We present detailed ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared light curves of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2012fr, which exploded in the Fornax cluster member NGC 1365. These precise high-cadence light curves provide a dense coverage of the flux evolution from $-$12 to $+$140 days with respect to the epoch of $B$-band maximum (\tmax). Supplementary imaging at the earliest epochs reveals an initial slow, nearly linear rise in luminosity with a duration of $\sim$2.5 days, followed by a faster rising phase that is well reproduced by an explosion model with a moderate amount of $^{56}$Ni mixing in the ejecta. From an analysis of the light curves, we conclude: $(i)$ explosion occurred $< 22$ hours before the first detection of the supernova, $(ii)$ the rise time to peak bolometric ($\lambda > 1800 $\AA) luminosity was $16.5 \pm 0.6$ days, $(iii)$ the supernova suffered little or no host-galaxy dust reddening, $(iv)$ the peak luminosity in both the optical and near-infrared was consistent with the bright end of normal Type Ia diversity, and $(v)$ $0.60 \pm 0.15 M_{\odot}$ of $^{56}$Ni was synthesized in the explosion. Despite its normal luminosity, SN 2012fr displayed unusually prevalent high-velocity \ion{Ca}{2} and \ion{Si}{2} absorption features, and a nearly constant photospheric velocity of the \ion{Si}{2} $\lambda$6355 line at $\sim$12,000 \kms\ beginning $\sim$5 days before \tmax. Other peculiarities in the early phase photometry and the spectral evolution are highlighted. SN 2012fr also adds to a growing number of Type Ia supernovae hosted by galaxies with direct Cepheid distance measurements.
0004-637X
Contreras, C.
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Phillips, M.M.
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Burns, Christopher R.
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Piro, Anthony L.
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Shappee, B.
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Stritzinger, Maximilian D
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Baltay, C.
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Brown, Peter J.
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Conseil, Emmanuel
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Klotz, Alain
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Turpin, Damien
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Parker, Stu
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Rabinowitz, D.
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Hsiao, Eric Y.
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Morrell, N.
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Campillay, Abdo
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Castellón, Sergio
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Corco, Carlos
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Gonzalez, Consuelo
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Krisciunas, Kevin
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Serón, Jacqueline
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Tucker, Brad E.
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Walker, E. S.
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Hamuy, M.
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Hoeflich, P.
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Persson, S.E.
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Scalzo, Richard
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Schmidt, Brian
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Suntzeff, Nichols B.
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Contreras, C.
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Phillips, M.M.
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Burns, Christopher R.
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Piro, Anthony L.
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Shappee, B.
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Klotz, Alain
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Campillay, Abdo
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Castellón, Sergio
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Corco, Carlos
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Gonzalez, Consuelo
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Serón, Jacqueline
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Walker, E. S.
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Baron, E.
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Cain, C
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Childress, Michael
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Hamuy, M.
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Hoeflich, P.
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Persson, S.E.
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Scalzo, Richard
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Schmidt, Brian
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Contreras, C., Phillips, M.M., Burns, Christopher R., Piro, Anthony L., Shappee, B., Stritzinger, Maximilian D, Baltay, C., Brown, Peter J., Conseil, Emmanuel, Klotz, Alain, Nugent, Peter E., Turpin, Damien, Parker, Stu, Rabinowitz, D., Hsiao, Eric Y., Morrell, N., Campillay, Abdo, Castellón, Sergio, Corco, Carlos, Gonzalez, Consuelo, Krisciunas, Kevin, Serón, Jacqueline, Tucker, Brad E., Walker, E. S., Baron, E., Cain, C, Childress, Michael, Folatelli, Gastón, Freedman, Wendy L., Hamuy, M., Hoeflich, P., Persson, S.E., Scalzo, Richard, Schmidt, Brian and Suntzeff, Nichols B. (2018) SN 2012fr: Ultraviolet, Optical, and Near-infrared Light Curves of a Type Ia Supernova Observed within a Day of Explosion. The Astrophysical Journal, 859 (1), [24]. (doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aabaf8).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We present detailed ultraviolet, optical and near-infrared light curves of the Type Ia supernova (SN) 2012fr, which exploded in the Fornax cluster member NGC 1365. These precise high-cadence light curves provide a dense coverage of the flux evolution from $-$12 to $+$140 days with respect to the epoch of $B$-band maximum (\tmax). Supplementary imaging at the earliest epochs reveals an initial slow, nearly linear rise in luminosity with a duration of $\sim$2.5 days, followed by a faster rising phase that is well reproduced by an explosion model with a moderate amount of $^{56}$Ni mixing in the ejecta. From an analysis of the light curves, we conclude: $(i)$ explosion occurred $< 22$ hours before the first detection of the supernova, $(ii)$ the rise time to peak bolometric ($\lambda > 1800 $\AA) luminosity was $16.5 \pm 0.6$ days, $(iii)$ the supernova suffered little or no host-galaxy dust reddening, $(iv)$ the peak luminosity in both the optical and near-infrared was consistent with the bright end of normal Type Ia diversity, and $(v)$ $0.60 \pm 0.15 M_{\odot}$ of $^{56}$Ni was synthesized in the explosion. Despite its normal luminosity, SN 2012fr displayed unusually prevalent high-velocity \ion{Ca}{2} and \ion{Si}{2} absorption features, and a nearly constant photospheric velocity of the \ion{Si}{2} $\lambda$6355 line at $\sim$12,000 \kms\ beginning $\sim$5 days before \tmax. Other peculiarities in the early phase photometry and the spectral evolution are highlighted. SN 2012fr also adds to a growing number of Type Ia supernovae hosted by galaxies with direct Cepheid distance measurements.

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1803.10095v3 - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 29 March 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 18 May 2018

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 421683
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/421683
ISSN: 0004-637X
PURE UUID: 0f7d507c-3737-4c64-96cb-4dd0df53d0f2

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Date deposited: 21 Jun 2018 16:30
Last modified: 16 Dec 2019 18:09

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Contributors

Author: C. Contreras
Author: M.M. Phillips
Author: Christopher R. Burns
Author: Anthony L. Piro
Author: B. Shappee
Author: Maximilian D Stritzinger
Author: C. Baltay
Author: Peter J. Brown
Author: Emmanuel Conseil
Author: Alain Klotz
Author: Peter E. Nugent
Author: Damien Turpin
Author: Stu Parker
Author: D. Rabinowitz
Author: Eric Y. Hsiao
Author: N. Morrell
Author: Abdo Campillay
Author: Sergio Castellón
Author: Carlos Corco
Author: Consuelo Gonzalez
Author: Kevin Krisciunas
Author: Jacqueline Serón
Author: Brad E. Tucker
Author: E. S. Walker
Author: E. Baron
Author: C Cain
Author: Michael Childress
Author: Gastón Folatelli
Author: Wendy L. Freedman
Author: M. Hamuy
Author: P. Hoeflich
Author: S.E. Persson
Author: Richard Scalzo
Author: Brian Schmidt
Author: Nichols B. Suntzeff

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