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Pyrolysis production of fruit peel biochar for potential use in treatment of palm oil mill effluent

Pyrolysis production of fruit peel biochar for potential use in treatment of palm oil mill effluent
Pyrolysis production of fruit peel biochar for potential use in treatment of palm oil mill effluent

Fruit peel, an abundant waste, represents a potential bio-resource to be converted into useful materials instead of being dumped in landfill sites. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a harmful waste that should also be treated before it can safely be released to the environment. In this study, pyrolysis of banana and orange peels was performed under different temperatures to produce biochar that was then examined as adsorbent in POME treatment. The pyrolysis generated 30.7–47.7 wt% yield of a dark biochar over a temperature ranging between 400 and 500 °C. The biochar contained no sulphur and possessed a hard texture, low volatile content (≤34 wt%), and high amounts of fixed carbon (≥72 wt%), showing durability in terms of high resistance to chemical reactions such as oxidation. The biochar showed a surface area of 105 m2/g and a porous structure containing mesopores, indicating its potential to provide many adsorption sites for use as an adsorbent. The use of the biochar as adsorbent to treat the POME showed a removal efficiency of up to 57% in reducing the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand COD, total suspended solid (TSS) and oil and grease (O&G) of POME to an acceptable level below the discharge standard. Our results indicate that pyrolysis shows promise as a technique to transform banana and orange peel into value-added biochar for use as adsorbent to treat POME. The recovery of biochar from fruit waste also shows advantage over traditional landfill approaches in disposing this waste.

Adsorbent, Biochar, Palm, Pyrolysis, Waste
0301-4797
400-408
Lam, Su Shiung
6b37a05e-d996-499c-8847-06a8fea295a7
Liew, Rock Keey
ba724dab-3223-4e59-a530-28d792e88774
Cheng, Chin Kui
111a8dc5-bf6e-41fe-bb24-67e75bdbd850
Rasit, Nazaitulshila
23db83aa-8fe0-40d2-9590-13d2400da2a6
Ooi, Chee Kuan
9475caf2-40dd-4d01-bf0d-2b2f2f5bbb15
Ma, Nyuk Ling
2bab603a-a489-45b8-8a7b-426c90d3cb5c
Ng, Jo Han
4c9c51bd-1cfc-46c0-b519-23b77566fe50
Lam, Wei Haur
2bb36025-c807-41f9-bd89-68223379e335
Chong, Cheng Tung
94e5dbc6-2c37-4d23-b200-dd1080174deb
Chase, Howard A.
51886c9d-cce4-4798-a93e-f15ada49c1db
Lam, Su Shiung
6b37a05e-d996-499c-8847-06a8fea295a7
Liew, Rock Keey
ba724dab-3223-4e59-a530-28d792e88774
Cheng, Chin Kui
111a8dc5-bf6e-41fe-bb24-67e75bdbd850
Rasit, Nazaitulshila
23db83aa-8fe0-40d2-9590-13d2400da2a6
Ooi, Chee Kuan
9475caf2-40dd-4d01-bf0d-2b2f2f5bbb15
Ma, Nyuk Ling
2bab603a-a489-45b8-8a7b-426c90d3cb5c
Ng, Jo Han
4c9c51bd-1cfc-46c0-b519-23b77566fe50
Lam, Wei Haur
2bb36025-c807-41f9-bd89-68223379e335
Chong, Cheng Tung
94e5dbc6-2c37-4d23-b200-dd1080174deb
Chase, Howard A.
51886c9d-cce4-4798-a93e-f15ada49c1db

Lam, Su Shiung, Liew, Rock Keey, Cheng, Chin Kui, Rasit, Nazaitulshila, Ooi, Chee Kuan, Ma, Nyuk Ling, Ng, Jo Han, Lam, Wei Haur, Chong, Cheng Tung and Chase, Howard A. (2018) Pyrolysis production of fruit peel biochar for potential use in treatment of palm oil mill effluent. Journal of Environmental Management, 213, 400-408, [e74]. (doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.02.092).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Fruit peel, an abundant waste, represents a potential bio-resource to be converted into useful materials instead of being dumped in landfill sites. Palm oil mill effluent (POME) is a harmful waste that should also be treated before it can safely be released to the environment. In this study, pyrolysis of banana and orange peels was performed under different temperatures to produce biochar that was then examined as adsorbent in POME treatment. The pyrolysis generated 30.7–47.7 wt% yield of a dark biochar over a temperature ranging between 400 and 500 °C. The biochar contained no sulphur and possessed a hard texture, low volatile content (≤34 wt%), and high amounts of fixed carbon (≥72 wt%), showing durability in terms of high resistance to chemical reactions such as oxidation. The biochar showed a surface area of 105 m2/g and a porous structure containing mesopores, indicating its potential to provide many adsorption sites for use as an adsorbent. The use of the biochar as adsorbent to treat the POME showed a removal efficiency of up to 57% in reducing the concentration of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand COD, total suspended solid (TSS) and oil and grease (O&G) of POME to an acceptable level below the discharge standard. Our results indicate that pyrolysis shows promise as a technique to transform banana and orange peel into value-added biochar for use as adsorbent to treat POME. The recovery of biochar from fruit waste also shows advantage over traditional landfill approaches in disposing this waste.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 25 February 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 16 March 2018
Published date: 1 May 2018
Keywords: Adsorbent, Biochar, Palm, Pyrolysis, Waste

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 422778
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/422778
ISSN: 0301-4797
PURE UUID: ebac668c-b9a6-4e96-a591-adcc17fdce5b

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 03 Aug 2018 16:31
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 01:03

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