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An extracellular polysaccharide-rich organic layer contributes to organization of the coccosphere in coccolithophores

An extracellular polysaccharide-rich organic layer contributes to organization of the coccosphere in coccolithophores
An extracellular polysaccharide-rich organic layer contributes to organization of the coccosphere in coccolithophores

Coccolithophores are globally abundant marine microalgae characterized by their ability to form calcite platelets (coccoliths). The coccoliths are produced internally in a Golgi-derived vesicle. Mature coccoliths are extruded from the cell to form a protective covering on the cell surface, known as the coccosphere. Current evidence indicates that calcite precipitation in the coccolith vesicle (CV) is modulated by coccolith-associated polysaccharides (CAPs). Whilst previous research into CAPs has focussed on their roles in calcite precipitation within the CV, little is known of their extracellular roles. Using fluorescent lectins, we visualize the extracellular polysaccharide-rich organic layer associated with external coccoliths and demonstrate that it differs between species in structure and composition. Biochemical analysis of polysaccharide extracted from coccoliths indicated substantial differences between species in monosaccharide composition and uronic acid content. In Coccolithus braarudii our studies indicate that polysaccharide-rich material is extruded with the coccoliths, where it plays a role in the adhesion of the coccoliths to the cell surface and contributes to the overall organization of the coccosphere. Together, these results highlight the important extracellular roles of CAPs and their contribution to the dynamic nature of the coccosphere.

Calcification, Coccolithophore, Coccolithus braarudii, Lectin, Polysaccharide
2296-7745
Walker, Charlotte E.
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Heath, Sarah
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Salmon, Deborah L.
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Smirnoff, Nicholas
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Langer, Gerald
eb30fd90-a855-4699-a383-f7e2d826c084
Taylor, Alison R.
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Brownlee, Colin
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Wheeler, Glen L.
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Walker, Charlotte E.
2ded81ef-5589-43ee-9558-550796b053ce
Heath, Sarah
b443abff-abd0-481e-b792-07559f231795
Salmon, Deborah L.
88ac927c-7845-4211-a0b9-fdc87976cbb5
Smirnoff, Nicholas
309c0af9-df61-46fa-ab08-01a8b8d85937
Langer, Gerald
eb30fd90-a855-4699-a383-f7e2d826c084
Taylor, Alison R.
a20791ff-9a08-4fb9-b484-2e39368f7789
Brownlee, Colin
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Wheeler, Glen L.
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Walker, Charlotte E., Heath, Sarah, Salmon, Deborah L., Smirnoff, Nicholas, Langer, Gerald, Taylor, Alison R., Brownlee, Colin and Wheeler, Glen L. (2018) An extracellular polysaccharide-rich organic layer contributes to organization of the coccosphere in coccolithophores. Frontiers in Marine Science, 5 (AUG), [306]. (doi:10.3389/fmars.2018.00306).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Coccolithophores are globally abundant marine microalgae characterized by their ability to form calcite platelets (coccoliths). The coccoliths are produced internally in a Golgi-derived vesicle. Mature coccoliths are extruded from the cell to form a protective covering on the cell surface, known as the coccosphere. Current evidence indicates that calcite precipitation in the coccolith vesicle (CV) is modulated by coccolith-associated polysaccharides (CAPs). Whilst previous research into CAPs has focussed on their roles in calcite precipitation within the CV, little is known of their extracellular roles. Using fluorescent lectins, we visualize the extracellular polysaccharide-rich organic layer associated with external coccoliths and demonstrate that it differs between species in structure and composition. Biochemical analysis of polysaccharide extracted from coccoliths indicated substantial differences between species in monosaccharide composition and uronic acid content. In Coccolithus braarudii our studies indicate that polysaccharide-rich material is extruded with the coccoliths, where it plays a role in the adhesion of the coccoliths to the cell surface and contributes to the overall organization of the coccosphere. Together, these results highlight the important extracellular roles of CAPs and their contribution to the dynamic nature of the coccosphere.

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Accepted/In Press date: 10 August 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 30 August 2018
Keywords: Calcification, Coccolithophore, Coccolithus braarudii, Lectin, Polysaccharide

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 423869
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/423869
ISSN: 2296-7745
PURE UUID: 38f7fc87-f8c5-41a4-a34e-411dd99546ec

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Date deposited: 03 Oct 2018 16:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 00:50

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Contributors

Author: Charlotte E. Walker
Author: Sarah Heath
Author: Deborah L. Salmon
Author: Nicholas Smirnoff
Author: Gerald Langer
Author: Alison R. Taylor
Author: Colin Brownlee
Author: Glen L. Wheeler

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