Optical waveguide tools for microsystems
At 2006 Joint International Meeting of the Electrochemical Society.
29 Oct - 03 Nov 2006.
Planar optical waveguides are well established components for the interrogation of chemical processes at surfaces with, for example, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) elements having a long pedigree  and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors finding widespread use in biomolecular research . The most important attributes of these devices are that the optical fields are confined to a submicrometer region above the solid surface of the transducer and that the light is delivered to the surface in a well-controlled way without passing through the bulk of the sample.
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