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Silicon and germanium mid-infrared optical modulators

Silicon and germanium mid-infrared optical modulators
Silicon and germanium mid-infrared optical modulators

The mid-infrared wavelength region contains absorption fingerprints of numerous molecules and therefore is mostly considered for sensing applications [1]. However, due to a need for more spectral bandwidth for communications, and because modulation can be used to enhance signal to noise ratio in sensing applications, photonic modulator devices operating at mid infrared (MIR) wavelengths would be useful functional devices [2]. However, to date there have been few reported investigations of modulation in Si or Ge in the mid-infrared. SOI carrier injection modulators operating at up to 3 Gb/s with pre-emphasis at a wavelength of 2165 nm have been reported [3]. By using Ge rib waveguides with lateral p-i-n junctions, optical intensity modulation based on free-carrier absorption was demonstrated in Ge by injecting carriers through a Ge p-i-n junction at 1950 nm [4]. Also, thermo-optic modulation has been demonstrated in SOI at 3.8 μm [5], and in Ge-on-Si (GOS) and Ge-on-SOI (GOSOI) at ∼5.3 μm [6]. An all optical modulator based on free-carrier absorption has also been demonstrated in GOS with bandwidth of around 55 MHz across the 2-3.2 μm wavelength range [7]. In addition, two photon absorption (TPA) cross absorption modulation has been reported on the same platform and in the same wavelength range [8].

209-210
IEEE
Cao, W.
6194b5dd-d4e9-40d0-b5fb-b264d72fe594
Nedeljković, M.
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Littlejohns, C. G.
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Li, T.
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Zhou, Z.
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Gardes, F.Y.
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Thomson, D.J.
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Reed, G.T.
ca08dd60-c072-4d7d-b254-75714d570139
Mashanovich, G.Z.
c806e262-af80-4836-b96f-319425060051
Cao, W.
6194b5dd-d4e9-40d0-b5fb-b264d72fe594
Nedeljković, M.
b64e21c2-1b95-479d-a35c-3456dff8c796
Littlejohns, C. G.
0fd6585d-030d-4d8f-a411-6fc03e083efa
Li, T.
8543c0da-cbf4-4acc-904f-d7d0ec772ec2
Zhou, Z.
ede65d1a-e058-4e7f-8960-ca6b3a248511
Gardes, F.Y.
7a49fc6d-dade-4099-b016-c60737cb5bb2
Thomson, D.J.
17c1626c-2422-42c6-98e0-586ae220bcda
Reed, G.T.
ca08dd60-c072-4d7d-b254-75714d570139
Mashanovich, G.Z.
c806e262-af80-4836-b96f-319425060051

Cao, W., Nedeljković, M., Littlejohns, C. G., Li, T., Zhou, Z., Gardes, F.Y., Thomson, D.J., Reed, G.T. and Mashanovich, G.Z. (2018) Silicon and germanium mid-infrared optical modulators. In IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals Meeting Series, SUM 2018. IEEE. pp. 209-210 . (doi:10.1109/PHOSST.2018.8456777).

Record type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)

Abstract

The mid-infrared wavelength region contains absorption fingerprints of numerous molecules and therefore is mostly considered for sensing applications [1]. However, due to a need for more spectral bandwidth for communications, and because modulation can be used to enhance signal to noise ratio in sensing applications, photonic modulator devices operating at mid infrared (MIR) wavelengths would be useful functional devices [2]. However, to date there have been few reported investigations of modulation in Si or Ge in the mid-infrared. SOI carrier injection modulators operating at up to 3 Gb/s with pre-emphasis at a wavelength of 2165 nm have been reported [3]. By using Ge rib waveguides with lateral p-i-n junctions, optical intensity modulation based on free-carrier absorption was demonstrated in Ge by injecting carriers through a Ge p-i-n junction at 1950 nm [4]. Also, thermo-optic modulation has been demonstrated in SOI at 3.8 μm [5], and in Ge-on-Si (GOS) and Ge-on-SOI (GOSOI) at ∼5.3 μm [6]. An all optical modulator based on free-carrier absorption has also been demonstrated in GOS with bandwidth of around 55 MHz across the 2-3.2 μm wavelength range [7]. In addition, two photon absorption (TPA) cross absorption modulation has been reported on the same platform and in the same wavelength range [8].

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More information

Published date: 5 September 2018
Venue - Dates: 2018 IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topicals Meeting Series, Waikoloa, United States, 2018-07-09 - 2018-07-11

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 425410
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/425410
PURE UUID: 125b463e-0835-47bc-9b96-704f687eccd5
ORCID for W. Cao: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1431-7060
ORCID for M. Nedeljković: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9170-7911

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Date deposited: 18 Oct 2018 16:30
Last modified: 30 Nov 2019 01:31

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Contributors

Author: W. Cao ORCID iD
Author: M. Nedeljković ORCID iD
Author: C. G. Littlejohns
Author: T. Li
Author: Z. Zhou
Author: F.Y. Gardes
Author: D.J. Thomson
Author: G.T. Reed

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