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Immune function and micronutrient requirements change over the life course

Immune function and micronutrient requirements change over the life course
Immune function and micronutrient requirements change over the life course
As humans age, the risk and severity of infections vary in line with immune competence according to how the immune system develops, matures, and declines. Several factors influence the immune system and its competence, including nutrition. A bidirectional relationship among nutrition, infection and immunity exists: changes in one component affect the others. For example, distinct immune features present during each life stage may affect the type, prevalence, and severity of infections, while poor nutrition can compromise immune function and increase infection risk. Various micronutrients are essential for immunocompetence, particularly vitamins A, C, D, E, B2, B6, and B12, folic acid, iron, selenium, and zinc. Micronutrient deficiencies are a recognized global public health issue, and poor nutritional status predisposes to certain infections. Immune function may be improved by restoring deficient micronutrients to recommended levels, thereby increasing resistance to infection and supporting faster recovery when infected. Diet alone may be insufficient and tailored micronutrient supplementation based on specific age-related needs necessary. This review looks at immune considerations specific to each life stage, the consequent risk of infection, micronutrient requirements and deficiencies exhibited over the life course, and the available evidence regarding the effects of micronutrient supplementation on immune function and infection.
1-27
Maggini, Silvia
24225ab4-a50b-4f28-be76-75fcb6f3b478
Pierre, Adeline
58e0b7b5-cc4d-4413-a0a3-a2673bb2ba98
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Maggini, Silvia
24225ab4-a50b-4f28-be76-75fcb6f3b478
Pierre, Adeline
58e0b7b5-cc4d-4413-a0a3-a2673bb2ba98
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6

Maggini, Silvia, Pierre, Adeline and Calder, Philip (2018) Immune function and micronutrient requirements change over the life course. Nutrients, 10 (10), 1-27, [1531]. (doi:10.3390/nu10101531).

Record type: Article

Abstract

As humans age, the risk and severity of infections vary in line with immune competence according to how the immune system develops, matures, and declines. Several factors influence the immune system and its competence, including nutrition. A bidirectional relationship among nutrition, infection and immunity exists: changes in one component affect the others. For example, distinct immune features present during each life stage may affect the type, prevalence, and severity of infections, while poor nutrition can compromise immune function and increase infection risk. Various micronutrients are essential for immunocompetence, particularly vitamins A, C, D, E, B2, B6, and B12, folic acid, iron, selenium, and zinc. Micronutrient deficiencies are a recognized global public health issue, and poor nutritional status predisposes to certain infections. Immune function may be improved by restoring deficient micronutrients to recommended levels, thereby increasing resistance to infection and supporting faster recovery when infected. Diet alone may be insufficient and tailored micronutrient supplementation based on specific age-related needs necessary. This review looks at immune considerations specific to each life stage, the consequent risk of infection, micronutrient requirements and deficiencies exhibited over the life course, and the available evidence regarding the effects of micronutrient supplementation on immune function and infection.

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Nutrients 371985 Revised - Accepted Manuscript
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nutrients-10-01531 - Version of Record
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 15 October 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 17 October 2018
Published date: 17 October 2018

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 425440
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/425440
PURE UUID: 9e0e7156-9c22-44e2-8d2d-51acfc1fef21
ORCID for Philip Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 19 Oct 2018 16:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:38

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Contributors

Author: Silvia Maggini
Author: Adeline Pierre
Author: Philip Calder ORCID iD

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