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An investigation of laboratory test methods for predicting the in-use leakage performance of urine-absorbing aids in nursing homes

An investigation of laboratory test methods for predicting the in-use leakage performance of urine-absorbing aids in nursing homes
An investigation of laboratory test methods for predicting the in-use leakage performance of urine-absorbing aids in nursing homes

The absorption before leakage method for measuring the absorption capacity of urine-absorbing aids was investigated. Along with the existing international standard (ISO 11948-1:1996, the Rothwell method), it was run on 12 experimental products whose in-use leakage performance was established by 55 incontinent nursing home residents. Methods were evaluated by considering their simplicity, their repeatability within – and their reproducibility between – six laboratories, and their correlation with in-use product performance. ISO 11948-1:1996 – which measures the absorption capacity of products under simple conditions – showed good repeatability and reproducibility, and reasonable correlation with in-use data. However, it proved blind to the effects of leg cuffs that conferred measurable benefits in real use. It should, therefore, be used with caution. The absorption before leakage method – which measures how much a product will hold before leakage when it is mounted on a manikin and standard aliquots of liquid are applied – is more complex and had poorer repeatability and reproducibility. However, it had stronger correlations with in-use data and successfully detected the benefits of leg cuffs on insert products. It is concluded that it holds potential as a new international standard to replace or complement ISO 11948-1:1996, and the necessary refinement work has been ongoing since the 2007 project described here. Two other laboratory methods were run opportunistically. A rewet method (Spanish national standard UNE 153601-2:2008) – for measuring the escape of fluid from a product under pressure – showed poor repeatability and reproducibility. Finally, an acquisition method was used to measure how quickly products absorbed two successive standard aliquots of liquid. It proved robust, showing good repeatability and reproducibility. Although measurements generally correlated well with in-use leakage performance, a direct causal link is unlikely. Products with high absorption capacity tend also to absorb quickly.

fluid absorption, Incontinence, international standards, laboratory-clinical correlations, urine-absorbing products
0954-4119
23-34
Cottenden, Alan
2e71598a-de0c-45e2-8321-aa6f5780e284
Macaulay, Margaret
505970d3-1e67-4c1f-8291-3a950d336c6b
Cottenden, Alan
2e71598a-de0c-45e2-8321-aa6f5780e284
Macaulay, Margaret
505970d3-1e67-4c1f-8291-3a950d336c6b

Cottenden, Alan and Macaulay, Margaret (2019) An investigation of laboratory test methods for predicting the in-use leakage performance of urine-absorbing aids in nursing homes. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine, 233 (1), 23-34. (doi:10.1177/0954411918792385).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The absorption before leakage method for measuring the absorption capacity of urine-absorbing aids was investigated. Along with the existing international standard (ISO 11948-1:1996, the Rothwell method), it was run on 12 experimental products whose in-use leakage performance was established by 55 incontinent nursing home residents. Methods were evaluated by considering their simplicity, their repeatability within – and their reproducibility between – six laboratories, and their correlation with in-use product performance. ISO 11948-1:1996 – which measures the absorption capacity of products under simple conditions – showed good repeatability and reproducibility, and reasonable correlation with in-use data. However, it proved blind to the effects of leg cuffs that conferred measurable benefits in real use. It should, therefore, be used with caution. The absorption before leakage method – which measures how much a product will hold before leakage when it is mounted on a manikin and standard aliquots of liquid are applied – is more complex and had poorer repeatability and reproducibility. However, it had stronger correlations with in-use data and successfully detected the benefits of leg cuffs on insert products. It is concluded that it holds potential as a new international standard to replace or complement ISO 11948-1:1996, and the necessary refinement work has been ongoing since the 2007 project described here. Two other laboratory methods were run opportunistically. A rewet method (Spanish national standard UNE 153601-2:2008) – for measuring the escape of fluid from a product under pressure – showed poor repeatability and reproducibility. Finally, an acquisition method was used to measure how quickly products absorbed two successive standard aliquots of liquid. It proved robust, showing good repeatability and reproducibility. Although measurements generally correlated well with in-use leakage performance, a direct causal link is unlikely. Products with high absorption capacity tend also to absorb quickly.

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Accepted/In Press date: 2 July 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 29 August 2018
Published date: 1 January 2019
Keywords: fluid absorption, Incontinence, international standards, laboratory-clinical correlations, urine-absorbing products

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 425459
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/425459
ISSN: 0954-4119
PURE UUID: 74b8ddf3-720e-4f89-899b-a2b45693b067
ORCID for Margaret Macaulay: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1737-4589

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Date deposited: 19 Oct 2018 16:30
Last modified: 28 Apr 2022 02:21

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Author: Alan Cottenden

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