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N-state random switching based on quantum tunnelling

N-state random switching based on quantum tunnelling
N-state random switching based on quantum tunnelling

In this work, we show how the hysteretic behaviour of resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) can be exploited for new functionalities. In particular, the RTDs exhibit a stochastic 2-state switching mechanism that could be useful for random number generation and cryptographic applications. This behaviour can be scaled to N-bit switching, by connecting various RTDs in series. The InGaAs/AlAs RTDs used in our experiments display very sharp negative differential resistance (NDR) peaks at room temperature which show hysteresis cycles that, rather than having a fixed switching threshold, show a probability distribution about a central value. We propose to use this intrinsic uncertainty emerging from the quantum nature of the RTDs as a source of randomness. We show that a combination of two RTDs in series results in devices with three-state outputs and discuss the possibility of scaling to N-state devices by subsequent series connections of RTDs, which we demonstrate for the up to the 4-state case. In this work, we suggest using that the intrinsic uncertainty in the conduction paths of resonant tunnelling diodes can behave as a source of randomness that can be integrated into current electronics to produce on-chip true random number generators. The N-shaped I-V characteristic of RTDs results in a two-level random voltage output when driven with current pulse trains. Electrical characterisation and randomness testing of the devices was conducted in order to determine the validity of the true randomness assumption. Based on the results obtained for the single RTD case, we suggest the possibility of using multi-well devices to generate N-state random switching devices for their use in random number generation or multi-valued logic devices.

multi-valued logic, quantum well, random number generation, Resonant tunneling diode
10354
SPIE
Bernardo Gavito, Ramón
cf45cbf2-f5e7-47f9-bb3e-30cbf5005b10
Jiménez Urbanos, Fernando
cd075eba-e491-45e0-b450-b88953e4dfde
Roberts, Jonathan
f6dc4282-689f-49f2-8b1b-3c71cf74db6b
Sexton, James
7b227674-bec1-43a7-8f45-01097e781935
Astbury, Benjamin
de0ac311-f067-4639-abfc-9d0bacd07470
Shokeir, Hamzah
884b4632-b7d8-4106-9726-e8767572da51
McGrath, Thomas
68bee9b9-4b8b-4a95-acc7-cf227ed102ea
Noori, Yasir J.
704d0b70-1ea6-4e00-92ce-cc2543087a09
Woodhead, Christopher S.
7a034c66-eefb-4d2a-b6a1-e8e7402076fe
Missous, Mohamed
98ca61fb-84c6-4ec9-9a91-3bfc2cd8dd78
Roedig, Utz
77ec02bf-0a48-4960-b02a-892f27501e6d
Young, Robert J.
333e90a3-3175-44a6-82ab-f543e6e293db
Bernardo Gavito, Ramón
cf45cbf2-f5e7-47f9-bb3e-30cbf5005b10
Jiménez Urbanos, Fernando
cd075eba-e491-45e0-b450-b88953e4dfde
Roberts, Jonathan
f6dc4282-689f-49f2-8b1b-3c71cf74db6b
Sexton, James
7b227674-bec1-43a7-8f45-01097e781935
Astbury, Benjamin
de0ac311-f067-4639-abfc-9d0bacd07470
Shokeir, Hamzah
884b4632-b7d8-4106-9726-e8767572da51
McGrath, Thomas
68bee9b9-4b8b-4a95-acc7-cf227ed102ea
Noori, Yasir J.
704d0b70-1ea6-4e00-92ce-cc2543087a09
Woodhead, Christopher S.
7a034c66-eefb-4d2a-b6a1-e8e7402076fe
Missous, Mohamed
98ca61fb-84c6-4ec9-9a91-3bfc2cd8dd78
Roedig, Utz
77ec02bf-0a48-4960-b02a-892f27501e6d
Young, Robert J.
333e90a3-3175-44a6-82ab-f543e6e293db

Bernardo Gavito, Ramón, Jiménez Urbanos, Fernando, Roberts, Jonathan, Sexton, James, Astbury, Benjamin, Shokeir, Hamzah, McGrath, Thomas, Noori, Yasir J., Woodhead, Christopher S., Missous, Mohamed, Roedig, Utz and Young, Robert J. (2017) N-state random switching based on quantum tunnelling. In Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices XIV. vol. 10354, SPIE.. (doi:10.1117/12.2273298).

Record type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)

Abstract

In this work, we show how the hysteretic behaviour of resonant tunnelling diodes (RTDs) can be exploited for new functionalities. In particular, the RTDs exhibit a stochastic 2-state switching mechanism that could be useful for random number generation and cryptographic applications. This behaviour can be scaled to N-bit switching, by connecting various RTDs in series. The InGaAs/AlAs RTDs used in our experiments display very sharp negative differential resistance (NDR) peaks at room temperature which show hysteresis cycles that, rather than having a fixed switching threshold, show a probability distribution about a central value. We propose to use this intrinsic uncertainty emerging from the quantum nature of the RTDs as a source of randomness. We show that a combination of two RTDs in series results in devices with three-state outputs and discuss the possibility of scaling to N-state devices by subsequent series connections of RTDs, which we demonstrate for the up to the 4-state case. In this work, we suggest using that the intrinsic uncertainty in the conduction paths of resonant tunnelling diodes can behave as a source of randomness that can be integrated into current electronics to produce on-chip true random number generators. The N-shaped I-V characteristic of RTDs results in a two-level random voltage output when driven with current pulse trains. Electrical characterisation and randomness testing of the devices was conducted in order to determine the validity of the true randomness assumption. Based on the results obtained for the single RTD case, we suggest the possibility of using multi-well devices to generate N-state random switching devices for their use in random number generation or multi-valued logic devices.

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More information

Published date: 31 August 2017
Venue - Dates: Nanoengineering: Fabrication, Properties, Optics, and Devices XIV 2017, San Diego, United States, 2017-08-09 - 2017-08-10
Keywords: multi-valued logic, quantum well, random number generation, Resonant tunneling diode

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 425675
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/425675
PURE UUID: 535405ca-9b21-4d57-b3e4-423808e9bcc3
ORCID for Yasir J. Noori: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5285-8779

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 31 Oct 2018 17:30
Last modified: 20 Jul 2019 00:22

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Contributors

Author: Ramón Bernardo Gavito
Author: Fernando Jiménez Urbanos
Author: Jonathan Roberts
Author: James Sexton
Author: Benjamin Astbury
Author: Hamzah Shokeir
Author: Thomas McGrath
Author: Yasir J. Noori ORCID iD
Author: Christopher S. Woodhead
Author: Mohamed Missous
Author: Utz Roedig
Author: Robert J. Young

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