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Effectiveness of HT-assisted sinkhole and blackhole denial of service attacks targeting mesh networks-on-chip

Effectiveness of HT-assisted sinkhole and blackhole denial of service attacks targeting mesh networks-on-chip
Effectiveness of HT-assisted sinkhole and blackhole denial of service attacks targeting mesh networks-on-chip

There are ample opportunities at both design and manufacturing phases to meddle in a many-core chip system, especially its underlining communication fabric, known as the networks-on-chip (NoC), through the inclusion of malicious hardware Trojans (HT). In this paper, we focus on studying two specific HT-assisted Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, namely the sinkhole and blackhole attacks, that directly target the NoC of a many-core chip. As of the blackhole attacks, those intermediate routers with inserted HTs can stop forwarding data packets/flits towards the packets’ destination; instead, packets are either dropped from the network or diverted to some other malicious nodes. Sinkhole attacks, which exhibit similar attack effects as blackhole attacks, can occur when the NoC supports adaptive routing. In this case, a malicious node actively solicits packets from its neighbor nodes by pretending to have sufficient free buffer slots. Effects and efficiencies of both sinkhole and blackhole DoS attacks are modeled and quantified in this paper, and a few factors that influence attack effects are found to be critical. Through fine-tuning of these parameters, both attacks are shown to cause more damages to the NoC, measured as over 30% increase in packet loss rate. Even with current detection and defense methods in place, the packet loss rate is still remarkably high, suggesting the need of new and more effective detection and defense methods against the enhanced blackhole and sinkhole attacks as described in the paper.

Denial-of-service attack, Hardware Trojan, Networks-on-chip
1383-7621
84-94
Zhang, Li
436180f9-ce8c-46cc-812a-f5ca24fd0f17
Wang, Xiaohang
95ffd2f0-3e1f-4cbe-8067-b600d6a08f75
Jiang, Yingtao
4d583f6f-1706-4732-9a66-9cc2eb803464
Yang, Mei
38fe643e-11e4-4188-b964-23970e309337
Mak, Terrence
0f90ac88-f035-4f92-a62a-7eb92406ea53
Singh, Amit Kumar
bb67d43e-34d9-4b58-9295-8b5458270408
Zhang, Li
436180f9-ce8c-46cc-812a-f5ca24fd0f17
Wang, Xiaohang
95ffd2f0-3e1f-4cbe-8067-b600d6a08f75
Jiang, Yingtao
4d583f6f-1706-4732-9a66-9cc2eb803464
Yang, Mei
38fe643e-11e4-4188-b964-23970e309337
Mak, Terrence
0f90ac88-f035-4f92-a62a-7eb92406ea53
Singh, Amit Kumar
bb67d43e-34d9-4b58-9295-8b5458270408

Zhang, Li, Wang, Xiaohang, Jiang, Yingtao, Yang, Mei, Mak, Terrence and Singh, Amit Kumar (2018) Effectiveness of HT-assisted sinkhole and blackhole denial of service attacks targeting mesh networks-on-chip. Journal of Systems Architecture, 89, 84-94. (doi:10.1016/j.sysarc.2018.07.005).

Record type: Article

Abstract

There are ample opportunities at both design and manufacturing phases to meddle in a many-core chip system, especially its underlining communication fabric, known as the networks-on-chip (NoC), through the inclusion of malicious hardware Trojans (HT). In this paper, we focus on studying two specific HT-assisted Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks, namely the sinkhole and blackhole attacks, that directly target the NoC of a many-core chip. As of the blackhole attacks, those intermediate routers with inserted HTs can stop forwarding data packets/flits towards the packets’ destination; instead, packets are either dropped from the network or diverted to some other malicious nodes. Sinkhole attacks, which exhibit similar attack effects as blackhole attacks, can occur when the NoC supports adaptive routing. In this case, a malicious node actively solicits packets from its neighbor nodes by pretending to have sufficient free buffer slots. Effects and efficiencies of both sinkhole and blackhole DoS attacks are modeled and quantified in this paper, and a few factors that influence attack effects are found to be critical. Through fine-tuning of these parameters, both attacks are shown to cause more damages to the NoC, measured as over 30% increase in packet loss rate. Even with current detection and defense methods in place, the packet loss rate is still remarkably high, suggesting the need of new and more effective detection and defense methods against the enhanced blackhole and sinkhole attacks as described in the paper.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 25 July 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 1 August 2018
Published date: 1 September 2018
Keywords: Denial-of-service attack, Hardware Trojan, Networks-on-chip

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 425785
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/425785
ISSN: 1383-7621
PURE UUID: 1ede41fb-da52-4062-ab97-0b79a7e73523

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 02 Nov 2018 17:30
Last modified: 25 Nov 2021 18:54

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Contributors

Author: Li Zhang
Author: Xiaohang Wang
Author: Yingtao Jiang
Author: Mei Yang
Author: Terrence Mak
Author: Amit Kumar Singh

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