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Gestational weight gain charts for different body mass index groups for women in Europe, North America and Oceania

Gestational weight gain charts for different body mass index groups for women in Europe, North America and Oceania
Gestational weight gain charts for different body mass index groups for women in Europe, North America and Oceania

Background:

Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies.

Methods:

We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape.

Results:

We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4–17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5–17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1–17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0–15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3–13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9–11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications.

Conclusions:

Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.
Santos, Susana G.
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Eekhout, Iris
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Voerman, Ellis
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Gaillard, Romy
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Barros, Henrique
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Crozier, Sarah
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Vrijheid, Martine
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Santos, Susana G.
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Eekhout, Iris
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Voerman, Ellis
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Chatzi, Leda
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Chevrier, Cecile
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Chrousos, George P.
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Corpeleijn, Eva
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Costet, Nathalie
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Crozier, Sarah
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Doyon, Myriam
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Gagliardi, Luigi
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Georgiu, Vagelis
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Hanke, Wojciech
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Heude, Barbara
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Hivert, Marie-France
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Karvonen, Anne
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Mommers, Monique
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Morgen, Camilla S
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Moschonis, George
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Murinova, Lubica
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Pizzi, Costanza
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Porta, Daniela
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Richiardi, Lorenzo
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Smit, Henriette A.
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Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.
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Standl, Marie
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Torrent, Maties
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Trnovec, Tomas
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Vrijheid, Martine
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Vrijkotte, Tanja G M
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Santos, Susana G., Eekhout, Iris, Voerman, Ellis, Gaillard, Romy, Barros, Henrique, Charles, Marie-Aline, Chatzi, Leda, Chevrier, Cecile, Chrousos, George P., Corpeleijn, Eva, Costet, Nathalie, Crozier, Sarah, Doyon, Myriam, Eggesbø, Merete, Fantini, Maria Pia, Farchi, Sara, Forastiere, Francesco, Gagliardi, Luigi, Georgiu, Vagelis, Godfrey, Keith, Gori, Davide, Grote, Veit, Hanke, Wojciech, Hertz-Picciotto, Irva, Heude, Barbara, Hivert, Marie-France, Hryhorczuk, Daniel O., Huang, Rae-Chi, Jusko, Todd A, Inskip, Hazel, Karvonen, Anne, Koletzko, Berthold, Küpers, Leanne K., Langstrom, Hanna, Lawlor, Debbie A, Lehmann, Irina, Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose, Magnus, Per, Majewska, Renata, Makela, Johanna, Manios, Yannis, McDonald, Sheila W., Mommers, Monique, Morgen, Camilla S, Moschonis, George, Murinova, Lubica, Newnham, John P, Nohr, Ellen Aagaard, Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie, Oken, Emily, Oostvogels, Adriette J J M., Pac, Agnieszka, Papadopoulou, Eleni, Pekkanen, Juha, Pizzi, Costanza, Polanska, Kinga, Porta, Daniela, Richiardi, Lorenzo, Rifas-shiman, Sheryl L., Roeleveld, Nel, Marina, Loreto Santa, Santos, Ana C., Smit, Henriette A., Sørensen, Thorkild I. A., Standl, Marie, Stanislawski, Maggie, Stoltenberg, Camilla, Thiering, Elisabeth, Thijs, Carel, Torrent, Maties, Tough, Suzanne C., Trnovec, Tomas, van Gelder, Marleen M H J, van Rossem, Lenie, von Berg, Andrea, Vrijheid, Martine, Vrijkotte, Tanja G M, Zvinchuk, Oleksandr, van Buuren, Stef and Jaddoe, Vincent W V (2018) Gestational weight gain charts for different body mass index groups for women in Europe, North America and Oceania. BMC Medicine, 16 (201). (doi:10.1186/s12916-018-1189-1).

Record type: Article

Abstract


Background:

Gestational weight gain differs according to pre-pregnancy body mass index and is related to the risks of adverse maternal and child health outcomes. Gestational weight gain charts for women in different pre-pregnancy body mass index groups enable identification of women and offspring at risk for adverse health outcomes. We aimed to construct gestational weight gain reference charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2 and 3 obese women and to compare these charts with those obtained in women with uncomplicated term pregnancies.

Methods:

We used individual participant data from 218,216 pregnant women participating in 33 cohorts from Europe, North America, and Oceania. Of these women, 9065 (4.2%), 148,697 (68.1%), 42,678 (19.6%), 13,084 (6.0%), 3597 (1.6%), and 1095 (0.5%) were underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. A total of 138, 517 women from 26 cohorts had pregnancies with no hypertensive or diabetic disorders and with term deliveries of appropriate for gestational age at birth infants. Gestational weight gain charts for underweight, normal weight, overweight, and grade 1, 2, and 3 obese women were derived by the Box-Cox t method using the generalized additive model for location, scale, and shape.

Results:

We observed that gestational weight gain strongly differed per maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index group. The median (interquartile range) gestational weight gain at 40 weeks was 14.2 kg (11.4–17.4) for underweight women, 14.5 kg (11.5–17.7) for normal weight women, 13.9 kg (10.1–17.9) for overweight women, and 11.2 kg (7.0–15.7), 8.7 kg (4.3–13.4) and 6.3 kg (1.9–11.1) for grades 1, 2, and 3 obese women, respectively. The rate of weight gain was lower in the first half than in the second half of pregnancy. No differences in the patterns of weight gain were observed between cohorts or countries. Similar weight gain patterns were observed in mothers without pregnancy complications.

Conclusions:

Gestational weight gain patterns are strongly related to pre-pregnancy body mass index. The derived charts can be used to assess gestational weight gain in etiological research and as a monitoring tool for weight gain during pregnancy in clinical practice.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 10 October 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 5 November 2018
Published date: 5 November 2018

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 426163
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/426163
PURE UUID: f08f1d17-0a8d-42a6-9b92-a5f9b9de489a
ORCID for Sarah Crozier: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9524-1127
ORCID for Keith Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618
ORCID for Hazel Inskip: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8897-1749

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Date deposited: 15 Nov 2018 17:30
Last modified: 10 Dec 2019 01:57

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Contributors

Author: Susana G. Santos
Author: Iris Eekhout
Author: Ellis Voerman
Author: Romy Gaillard
Author: Henrique Barros
Author: Marie-Aline Charles
Author: Leda Chatzi
Author: Cecile Chevrier
Author: George P. Chrousos
Author: Eva Corpeleijn
Author: Nathalie Costet
Author: Sarah Crozier ORCID iD
Author: Myriam Doyon
Author: Merete Eggesbø
Author: Maria Pia Fantini
Author: Sara Farchi
Author: Francesco Forastiere
Author: Luigi Gagliardi
Author: Vagelis Georgiu
Author: Keith Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: Davide Gori
Author: Veit Grote
Author: Wojciech Hanke
Author: Irva Hertz-Picciotto
Author: Barbara Heude
Author: Marie-France Hivert
Author: Daniel O. Hryhorczuk
Author: Rae-Chi Huang
Author: Todd A Jusko
Author: Hazel Inskip ORCID iD
Author: Anne Karvonen
Author: Berthold Koletzko
Author: Leanne K. Küpers
Author: Hanna Langstrom
Author: Debbie A Lawlor
Author: Irina Lehmann
Author: Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa
Author: Per Magnus
Author: Renata Majewska
Author: Johanna Makela
Author: Yannis Manios
Author: Sheila W. McDonald
Author: Monique Mommers
Author: Camilla S Morgen
Author: George Moschonis
Author: Lubica Murinova
Author: John P Newnham
Author: Ellen Aagaard Nohr
Author: Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen
Author: Emily Oken
Author: Adriette J J M. Oostvogels
Author: Agnieszka Pac
Author: Eleni Papadopoulou
Author: Juha Pekkanen
Author: Costanza Pizzi
Author: Kinga Polanska
Author: Daniela Porta
Author: Lorenzo Richiardi
Author: Sheryl L. Rifas-shiman
Author: Nel Roeleveld
Author: Loreto Santa Marina
Author: Ana C. Santos
Author: Henriette A. Smit
Author: Thorkild I. A. Sørensen
Author: Marie Standl
Author: Maggie Stanislawski
Author: Camilla Stoltenberg
Author: Elisabeth Thiering
Author: Carel Thijs
Author: Maties Torrent
Author: Suzanne C. Tough
Author: Tomas Trnovec
Author: Marleen M H J van Gelder
Author: Lenie van Rossem
Author: Andrea von Berg
Author: Martine Vrijheid
Author: Tanja G M Vrijkotte
Author: Oleksandr Zvinchuk
Author: Stef van Buuren
Author: Vincent W V Jaddoe

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