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The divergent effect of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and postweaning high-fat diet feeding on blood pressure and adiposity in adult mouse offspring

The divergent effect of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and postweaning high-fat diet feeding on blood pressure and adiposity in adult mouse offspring
The divergent effect of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and postweaning high-fat diet feeding on blood pressure and adiposity in adult mouse offspring

Obesity is a growing health crisis of pandemic proportions. Numerous animal and human studies have confirmed that obesity and related metabolic abnormalities, such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, may be programmed during development by adverse maternal nutrition. We previously documented that offspring of female mice who were protein-restricted during pregnancy alone had no alterations to their body weights, but did display a considerable reduction in food intake, a finding which was linked to reduced expression levels of appetite regulatory genes in the hypothalamus. Whether such observations were accompanied by changes in metabolic and phenotypic parameters remained to be determined. Female pregnant MF-1 mice were fed, exclusively during the pregnancy period, a normal protein diet containing 18% casein (C) or an isocaloric protein-restricted diet containing 9% casein (PR). From birth, the lactating dams were fed a normal protein diet. At weaning, offspring were fed either the standard chow which contain 7% kcal fat (C) or high-fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat). This yielded 4 experimental groups denoted by maternal diet/offspring diet: C/C, C/HF, PR/C, PR/HF. Our results showed that offspring adiposity was significantly increased in HF-fed offspring, and was not affected by the 50% reduction in protein content of the maternal diet fed during pregnancy. Similarly, blood glucose levels were higher in HF-fed offspring, regardless of protein content of the maternal diet. Systolic blood pressure, on the other hand, was significantly increased in both male and female offspring of dams fed the PR diet, and this was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet. Our results show that maternal protein restriction leads to elevations in systolic blood pressure, which is exacerbated by a postweaning HF-diet. Our present findings suggest that, while changes in offspring adiposity brought about by exposure to maternal protein restriction during pregnancy may be restored by adequate maternal protein content during lactation, the same may not be true for systolic blood pressure, which was similarly impaired, regardless of the timing of maternal low-protein exposure.

hypertension, maternal diet, metabolism, nutrition, obesity
1-10
Sellayah, Dyan
4b637ae6-a2f1-4eb6-8bd6-5155c58ac424
Cagampang, Felino R.
7cf57d52-4a65-4554-8306-ed65226bc50e
Sellayah, Dyan
4b637ae6-a2f1-4eb6-8bd6-5155c58ac424
Cagampang, Felino R.
7cf57d52-4a65-4554-8306-ed65226bc50e

Sellayah, Dyan and Cagampang, Felino R. (2018) The divergent effect of maternal protein restriction during pregnancy and postweaning high-fat diet feeding on blood pressure and adiposity in adult mouse offspring. Nutrients, 10 (12), 1-10. (doi:10.3390/nu10121832).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Obesity is a growing health crisis of pandemic proportions. Numerous animal and human studies have confirmed that obesity and related metabolic abnormalities, such as insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease, may be programmed during development by adverse maternal nutrition. We previously documented that offspring of female mice who were protein-restricted during pregnancy alone had no alterations to their body weights, but did display a considerable reduction in food intake, a finding which was linked to reduced expression levels of appetite regulatory genes in the hypothalamus. Whether such observations were accompanied by changes in metabolic and phenotypic parameters remained to be determined. Female pregnant MF-1 mice were fed, exclusively during the pregnancy period, a normal protein diet containing 18% casein (C) or an isocaloric protein-restricted diet containing 9% casein (PR). From birth, the lactating dams were fed a normal protein diet. At weaning, offspring were fed either the standard chow which contain 7% kcal fat (C) or high-fat diet (HF, 45% kcal fat). This yielded 4 experimental groups denoted by maternal diet/offspring diet: C/C, C/HF, PR/C, PR/HF. Our results showed that offspring adiposity was significantly increased in HF-fed offspring, and was not affected by the 50% reduction in protein content of the maternal diet fed during pregnancy. Similarly, blood glucose levels were higher in HF-fed offspring, regardless of protein content of the maternal diet. Systolic blood pressure, on the other hand, was significantly increased in both male and female offspring of dams fed the PR diet, and this was exacerbated by a postweaning HF diet. Our results show that maternal protein restriction leads to elevations in systolic blood pressure, which is exacerbated by a postweaning HF-diet. Our present findings suggest that, while changes in offspring adiposity brought about by exposure to maternal protein restriction during pregnancy may be restored by adequate maternal protein content during lactation, the same may not be true for systolic blood pressure, which was similarly impaired, regardless of the timing of maternal low-protein exposure.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 16 November 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 28 November 2018
Published date: 28 November 2018
Keywords: hypertension, maternal diet, metabolism, nutrition, obesity

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 426768
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/426768
PURE UUID: cddd6b90-bd65-4294-a1f0-d92b70eb4f7e
ORCID for Felino R. Cagampang: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4404-9853

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 12 Dec 2018 17:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 01:47

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