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Microfluidics as an emerging platform for tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR): a review

Microfluidics as an emerging platform for tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR): a review
Microfluidics as an emerging platform for tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR): a review
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when microbes become resistant to antibiotics causing complications and limited treatment options. AMR is more significant where antibiotics use is excessive or abusive and the strains of bacteria become resistant to antibiotic treatments. Current technologies for bacteria and its resistant strains identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are mostly central-lab based in hospitals, which normally take days to weeks to get results. These tools and procedures are expensive, laborious and skills based. There is an ever-increasing demand for developing point-of-care diagnostics tools for rapid and near patient AMR testing. Microfluidics, an important and fundamental technique to develop POC devices, has been utilized to tackle AMR in healthcare. This review mainly focuses on the current development in the field of microfluidics for rapid AMR testing.

METHODS: Due to the limitations of conventional AMR techniques, microfluidic based platforms have been developed for better understandings of bacterial resistance, smart AST and MIC testing tools and development of new drugs. This review aims to summarize the recent development of AST and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing tools in different formats of microfluidics technology.

RESULTS: Various microfluidics devices have been developed to combat AMR. Miniaturization and integration of different tools has been attempted to produce handheld or standalone devices for rapid AMR testing using different formats of microfluidics technology such as active microfluidics, droplet microfluidics, paper microfluidics and capillary-driven microfluidics.

CONCLUSION: Current conventional AMR detection technologies provide time consuming, costly, labor intensive and central lab-based solutions, limiting their applications. Microfluidics has been developed for decades and the technology has emerged as a powerful tool for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics of antimicrobial resistance in healthcare providing, simple, robust, cost-effective and portable diagnostics. The successes have been registered in research articles; however, the potentials of microfluidics technology in tackling AMR have not been fully achieved in clinical settings.
Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), Capillary flow, Colorimetry, Lab-on-a-chip, Microfluidics, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Point-of-care
1573-4110
41-51
Hassan, Sammer-Ul
8a5ae3f1-3451-4093-879e-85f40953da8b
Zhang, Xunli
d7cf1181-3276-4da1-9150-e212b333abb1
Hassan, Sammer-Ul
8a5ae3f1-3451-4093-879e-85f40953da8b
Zhang, Xunli
d7cf1181-3276-4da1-9150-e212b333abb1

Hassan, Sammer-Ul and Zhang, Xunli (2020) Microfluidics as an emerging platform for tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR): a review. Current Analytical Chemistry, 16 (1), 41-51. (doi:10.2174/1573411015666181224145845).

Record type: Review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) occurs when microbes become resistant to antibiotics causing complications and limited treatment options. AMR is more significant where antibiotics use is excessive or abusive and the strains of bacteria become resistant to antibiotic treatments. Current technologies for bacteria and its resistant strains identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) are mostly central-lab based in hospitals, which normally take days to weeks to get results. These tools and procedures are expensive, laborious and skills based. There is an ever-increasing demand for developing point-of-care diagnostics tools for rapid and near patient AMR testing. Microfluidics, an important and fundamental technique to develop POC devices, has been utilized to tackle AMR in healthcare. This review mainly focuses on the current development in the field of microfluidics for rapid AMR testing.

METHODS: Due to the limitations of conventional AMR techniques, microfluidic based platforms have been developed for better understandings of bacterial resistance, smart AST and MIC testing tools and development of new drugs. This review aims to summarize the recent development of AST and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) testing tools in different formats of microfluidics technology.

RESULTS: Various microfluidics devices have been developed to combat AMR. Miniaturization and integration of different tools has been attempted to produce handheld or standalone devices for rapid AMR testing using different formats of microfluidics technology such as active microfluidics, droplet microfluidics, paper microfluidics and capillary-driven microfluidics.

CONCLUSION: Current conventional AMR detection technologies provide time consuming, costly, labor intensive and central lab-based solutions, limiting their applications. Microfluidics has been developed for decades and the technology has emerged as a powerful tool for point-of-care (POC) diagnostics of antimicrobial resistance in healthcare providing, simple, robust, cost-effective and portable diagnostics. The successes have been registered in research articles; however, the potentials of microfluidics technology in tackling AMR have not been fully achieved in clinical settings.

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Microfluidics as an emerging platform to tackle AMR-Revised - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 12 December 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 31 January 2020
Published date: 2020
Keywords: Antibiotic, Antimicrobial resistance (AMR), Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST), Capillary flow, Colorimetry, Lab-on-a-chip, Microfluidics, Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), Point-of-care

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 427465
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/427465
ISSN: 1573-4110
PURE UUID: 695b0fb1-f1f7-4e69-86c5-b0c504ce1ee6
ORCID for Sammer-Ul Hassan: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0319-5814
ORCID for Xunli Zhang: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4375-1571

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 17 Jan 2019 17:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 06:11

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