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Ratcheting wear of a cobalt-chromium alloy during reciprocated self-mated dry sliding

Ratcheting wear of a cobalt-chromium alloy during reciprocated self-mated dry sliding
Ratcheting wear of a cobalt-chromium alloy during reciprocated self-mated dry sliding

Cobalt-chromium alloys find usage in environments where reliable wear and friction properties are required. However, the sliding wear particles generated presents significant health risks in nuclear and medical applications. Thus, there is great motivation to develop cobalt-free alternatives. These alloys are known to undergo several physical changes at the interface during dry sliding, sensitive to the loading conditions and environment. Due to these micro-structural alterations, the wear behaviour of the alloy is modified, which linear Archard-like wear models do not capture. To better understand the wear performance a cobalt-chromium alloy in-situ, and to aid their replacement, a mechanistic model of wear would be desirable. To understand the essential physical phenomena required in the modelling of cobalt-chrome systems, a systematic experimental study was performed for a hot-isostatically pressed cobalt-chromium hard-facing alloy. To date, no such in-depth self-mated tribological study has been conducted for this alloy under these processing conditions. Tests were done under combinations of sliding speed (0.02–0.5 m/s) and normal load (40–1000N). Platelet wear and subsurface cracking was seen in all tests, with considerable work-hardening in the subsurface, as well as evidence of plastic deformation at the wear surface. These results suggest the platelet wear observed is more likely a consequence of a plastic ratcheting mechanism, known as ‘ratchetting wear’ and not delamination wear. Unique to this study, the cross-sectional nano-indentation study showed the stiffness of material at and below wear interface to drop significantly. The changes in material properties and a plastically-driven wear mechanism have implications for the development of a mechanistic wear model.

Cobalt-chromium, Modelling, Platelet, Ratcheting, Sliding
0043-1648
1142-1151
Cross, P.S.G.
c77a625f-55cb-43f8-9e76-54a8653a6b7d
Limbert, G.
a1b88cb4-c5d9-4c6e-b6c9-7f4c4aa1c2ec
Stewart, Dave
2a32ef9b-7735-4ba1-b2c3-7a2c8e76dd4d
Wood, R.J.K.
d9523d31-41a8-459a-8831-70e29ffe8a73
Cross, P.S.G.
c77a625f-55cb-43f8-9e76-54a8653a6b7d
Limbert, G.
a1b88cb4-c5d9-4c6e-b6c9-7f4c4aa1c2ec
Stewart, Dave
2a32ef9b-7735-4ba1-b2c3-7a2c8e76dd4d
Wood, R.J.K.
d9523d31-41a8-459a-8831-70e29ffe8a73

Cross, P.S.G., Limbert, G., Stewart, Dave and Wood, R.J.K. (2019) Ratcheting wear of a cobalt-chromium alloy during reciprocated self-mated dry sliding. Wear, 426–427 (Part B), 1142-1151. (doi:10.1016/j.wear.2018.12.077).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Cobalt-chromium alloys find usage in environments where reliable wear and friction properties are required. However, the sliding wear particles generated presents significant health risks in nuclear and medical applications. Thus, there is great motivation to develop cobalt-free alternatives. These alloys are known to undergo several physical changes at the interface during dry sliding, sensitive to the loading conditions and environment. Due to these micro-structural alterations, the wear behaviour of the alloy is modified, which linear Archard-like wear models do not capture. To better understand the wear performance a cobalt-chromium alloy in-situ, and to aid their replacement, a mechanistic model of wear would be desirable. To understand the essential physical phenomena required in the modelling of cobalt-chrome systems, a systematic experimental study was performed for a hot-isostatically pressed cobalt-chromium hard-facing alloy. To date, no such in-depth self-mated tribological study has been conducted for this alloy under these processing conditions. Tests were done under combinations of sliding speed (0.02–0.5 m/s) and normal load (40–1000N). Platelet wear and subsurface cracking was seen in all tests, with considerable work-hardening in the subsurface, as well as evidence of plastic deformation at the wear surface. These results suggest the platelet wear observed is more likely a consequence of a plastic ratcheting mechanism, known as ‘ratchetting wear’ and not delamination wear. Unique to this study, the cross-sectional nano-indentation study showed the stiffness of material at and below wear interface to drop significantly. The changes in material properties and a plastically-driven wear mechanism have implications for the development of a mechanistic wear model.

Text
11-10-2018 Paul experimental paper - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 24 December 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 10 April 2019
Keywords: Cobalt-chromium, Modelling, Platelet, Ratcheting, Sliding

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 428314
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/428314
ISSN: 0043-1648
PURE UUID: 283a9c0d-ccfe-41b3-b9d7-6e2d1abf472a
ORCID for P.S.G. Cross: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-7768-5659
ORCID for R.J.K. Wood: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0681-9239

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 20 Feb 2019 17:30
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 16:43

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