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Neisserial molecular adaptations to the nasopharyngeal niche

Neisserial molecular adaptations to the nasopharyngeal niche
Neisserial molecular adaptations to the nasopharyngeal niche

The exclusive reservoir of the genus Neisseria is the human. Of the broad range of species that comprise the Neisseria, only two are frequently pathogenic, and only one of those is a resident of the nasopharynx. Although Neisseria meningitidis can cause severe disease if it invades the bloodstream, the vast majority of interactions between humans and Neisseria are benign, with the bacteria inhabiting its mucosal niche as a non-invasive commensal. Understandably, with the exception of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which preferentially colonises the urogenital tract, the neisseriae are extremely well adapted to survival in the human nasopharynx, their sole biological niche. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms evolved by Neisseria to facilitate colonisation and survival within the nasopharynx, focussing on N. meningitidis. The organism has adapted to survive in aerosolised transmission and to attach to mucosal surfaces. It then has to replicate in a nutrition-poor environment and resist immune and competitive pressure within a polymicrobial complex. Temperature and relative gas concentrations (nitric oxide and oxygen) are likely to be potent initial signals of arrival within the nasopharyngeal environment, and this review will focus on how N. meningitidis responds to these to increase the likelihood of its survival.

Adaptation, Biological, Bacteremia, Bacterial Adhesion, Carrier State, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Meningitis, Meningococcal, Meningococcal Infections, Nasopharynx, Neisseria meningitidis, Journal Article, Review
0065-2911
323-355
Laver, Jay R.
b2996398-2ccf-40f0-92b8-f338f3de796b
Hughes, Sara E.
e55455f5-5715-41a9-a2e5-03ab3f8bc8e8
Read, Robert C.
b5caca7b-0063-438a-b703-7ecbb6fc2b51
Laver, Jay R.
b2996398-2ccf-40f0-92b8-f338f3de796b
Hughes, Sara E.
e55455f5-5715-41a9-a2e5-03ab3f8bc8e8
Read, Robert C.
b5caca7b-0063-438a-b703-7ecbb6fc2b51

Laver, Jay R., Hughes, Sara E. and Read, Robert C. (2015) Neisserial molecular adaptations to the nasopharyngeal niche. Advances in Microbial Physiology, 66, 323-355. (doi:10.1016/bs.ampbs.2015.05.001).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The exclusive reservoir of the genus Neisseria is the human. Of the broad range of species that comprise the Neisseria, only two are frequently pathogenic, and only one of those is a resident of the nasopharynx. Although Neisseria meningitidis can cause severe disease if it invades the bloodstream, the vast majority of interactions between humans and Neisseria are benign, with the bacteria inhabiting its mucosal niche as a non-invasive commensal. Understandably, with the exception of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, which preferentially colonises the urogenital tract, the neisseriae are extremely well adapted to survival in the human nasopharynx, their sole biological niche. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the molecular mechanisms evolved by Neisseria to facilitate colonisation and survival within the nasopharynx, focussing on N. meningitidis. The organism has adapted to survive in aerosolised transmission and to attach to mucosal surfaces. It then has to replicate in a nutrition-poor environment and resist immune and competitive pressure within a polymicrobial complex. Temperature and relative gas concentrations (nitric oxide and oxygen) are likely to be potent initial signals of arrival within the nasopharyngeal environment, and this review will focus on how N. meningitidis responds to these to increase the likelihood of its survival.

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More information

e-pub ahead of print date: 30 May 2015
Published date: 2015
Additional Information: © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Adaptation, Biological, Bacteremia, Bacterial Adhesion, Carrier State, Host-Pathogen Interactions, Humans, Meningitis, Meningococcal, Meningococcal Infections, Nasopharynx, Neisseria meningitidis, Journal Article, Review

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 428858
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/428858
ISSN: 0065-2911
PURE UUID: ee0fdd07-6209-4bbe-bfc1-8d4031ba9682
ORCID for Robert C. Read: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4297-6728

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 13 Mar 2019 19:09
Last modified: 14 Mar 2019 01:36

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Contributors

Author: Jay R. Laver
Author: Sara E. Hughes
Author: Robert C. Read ORCID iD

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