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Evidence for color dichotomy in the primordial Neptunian Trojan population

Evidence for color dichotomy in the primordial Neptunian Trojan population
Evidence for color dichotomy in the primordial Neptunian Trojan population

In the current model of early Solar System evolution, the stable members of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojan populations were captured into resonance from the leftover reservoir of planetesimals during the outward migration of the giant planets. As a result, both Jovian and Neptunian Trojans share a common origin with the primordial disk population, whose other surviving members constitute today's trans-Neptunian object (TNO) populations. The cold (low inclination and small eccentricity) classical TNOs are ultra-red, while the dynamically excited “hot” (high inclination and larger eccentricity) population of TNOs contains a mixture of ultra-red and blue objects. In contrast, Jovian and Neptunian Trojans are observed to be blue. While the absence of ultra-red Jovian Trojans can be readily explained by the sublimation of volatile material from their surfaces due to the high flux of solar radiation at 5 AU, the lack of ultra-red Neptunian Trojans presents both a puzzle and a challenge to formation models. In this work we report the discovery by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) of two new dynamically stable L4 Neptunian Trojans, 2013 VX30 and 2014 UU240, both with inclinations i > 30° making them the highest-inclination known stable Neptunian Trojans. We have measured the colors of these and three other dynamically stable Neptunian Trojans previously observed by DES, and find that 2013 VX30 is ultra-red, the first such Neptunian Trojan in its class. As such, 2013 VX30 may be a “missing link” between the Trojan and TNO populations. Using a simulation of the DES TNO detection efficiency, we find that there are 162 ± 73 Trojans with Hr < 10 at the L4 Lagrange point of Neptune. Moreover, the blue-to-red Neptunian Trojan population ratio should be higher than 17:1. Based on this result, we discuss the possible origin of the ultra-red Neptunian Trojan population and its implications for the formation history of Neptunian Trojans.

Orbital, Resonances, Trans-Neptunian objects, Trojan asteroids
0019-1035
426-435
Lin (林省文), Hsing Wen
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W. Gerdes, David
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J. Hamilton, Stephanie
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C. Adams, Fred
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M. Bernstein, Gary
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Sako, Masao
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Bernadinelli, Pedro
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Tucker, Douglas
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Allam, Sahar
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C. Becker, Juliette
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Khain, Tali
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Markwardt, Larissa
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Franson, Kyle
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Abbott, T. M.C.
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Annis, J.
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Avila, S.
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Brooks, D.
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Carnero Rosell, A.
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Carrasco Kind, M.
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Cunha, C. E.
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D'Andrea, C. B.
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da Costa, L. N.
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De Vicente, J.
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Doel, P.
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Eifler, T. F.
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Flaugher, B.
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García-Bellido, J.
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Hollowood, D. L.
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Honscheid, Klaus
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James, D. J.
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Kuehn, K.
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Kuropatkin, N.
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Maia, M. A.G.
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Marshall, J. L.
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Miquel, R.
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Plazas, A. A.
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Romer, A. K.
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Sanchez, E.
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Scarpine, V.
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Sevilla-Noarbe, I.
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Smith, M.
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Smith, R. C.
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Soares-Santos, M.
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Sobreira, F.
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Suchyta, E.
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Tarle, G.
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Walker, A. R.
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Wester, W.
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Lin (林省文), Hsing Wen
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W. Gerdes, David
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J. Hamilton, Stephanie
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C. Adams, Fred
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M. Bernstein, Gary
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Sako, Masao
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Bernadinelli, Pedro
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Tucker, Douglas
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Allam, Sahar
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C. Becker, Juliette
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Khain, Tali
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Markwardt, Larissa
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Franson, Kyle
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Abbott, T. M.C.
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Annis, J.
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Avila, S.
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Brooks, D.
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Carnero Rosell, A.
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Carrasco Kind, M.
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Cunha, C. E.
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D'Andrea, C. B.
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da Costa, L. N.
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De Vicente, J.
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Doel, P.
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Eifler, T. F.
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Flaugher, B.
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García-Bellido, J.
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Hollowood, D. L.
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Honscheid, Klaus
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James, D. J.
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Kuehn, K.
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Kuropatkin, N.
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Maia, M. A.G.
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Marshall, J. L.
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Miquel, R.
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Plazas, A. A.
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Romer, A. K.
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Sanchez, E.
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Scarpine, V.
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Sevilla-Noarbe, I.
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Smith, M.
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Smith, R. C.
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Soares-Santos, M.
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Sobreira, F.
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Suchyta, E.
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Tarle, G.
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Walker, A. R.
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Wester, W.
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Lin (林省文), Hsing Wen, W. Gerdes, David, J. Hamilton, Stephanie, C. Adams, Fred, M. Bernstein, Gary, Sako, Masao, Bernadinelli, Pedro, Tucker, Douglas, Allam, Sahar, C. Becker, Juliette, Khain, Tali, Markwardt, Larissa, Franson, Kyle, Abbott, T. M.C., Annis, J., Avila, S., Brooks, D., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Cunha, C. E., D'Andrea, C. B., da Costa, L. N., De Vicente, J., Doel, P., Eifler, T. F., Flaugher, B., García-Bellido, J., Hollowood, D. L., Honscheid, Klaus, James, D. J., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Maia, M. A.G., Marshall, J. L., Miquel, R., Plazas, A. A., Romer, A. K., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Smith, R. C., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Tarle, G., Walker, A. R. and Wester, W. (2019) Evidence for color dichotomy in the primordial Neptunian Trojan population. Icarus, 321, 426-435. (doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2018.12.006).

Record type: Article

Abstract

In the current model of early Solar System evolution, the stable members of the Jovian and Neptunian Trojan populations were captured into resonance from the leftover reservoir of planetesimals during the outward migration of the giant planets. As a result, both Jovian and Neptunian Trojans share a common origin with the primordial disk population, whose other surviving members constitute today's trans-Neptunian object (TNO) populations. The cold (low inclination and small eccentricity) classical TNOs are ultra-red, while the dynamically excited “hot” (high inclination and larger eccentricity) population of TNOs contains a mixture of ultra-red and blue objects. In contrast, Jovian and Neptunian Trojans are observed to be blue. While the absence of ultra-red Jovian Trojans can be readily explained by the sublimation of volatile material from their surfaces due to the high flux of solar radiation at 5 AU, the lack of ultra-red Neptunian Trojans presents both a puzzle and a challenge to formation models. In this work we report the discovery by the Dark Energy Survey (DES) of two new dynamically stable L4 Neptunian Trojans, 2013 VX30 and 2014 UU240, both with inclinations i > 30° making them the highest-inclination known stable Neptunian Trojans. We have measured the colors of these and three other dynamically stable Neptunian Trojans previously observed by DES, and find that 2013 VX30 is ultra-red, the first such Neptunian Trojan in its class. As such, 2013 VX30 may be a “missing link” between the Trojan and TNO populations. Using a simulation of the DES TNO detection efficiency, we find that there are 162 ± 73 Trojans with Hr < 10 at the L4 Lagrange point of Neptune. Moreover, the blue-to-red Neptunian Trojan population ratio should be higher than 17:1. Based on this result, we discuss the possible origin of the ultra-red Neptunian Trojan population and its implications for the formation history of Neptunian Trojans.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Accepted/In Press date: 4 December 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 5 December 2018
Published date: 15 March 2019
Keywords: Orbital, Resonances, Trans-Neptunian objects, Trojan asteroids

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 428974
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/428974
ISSN: 0019-1035
PURE UUID: c4834ccb-4b0d-471a-a406-4c96decde51a
ORCID for M. Smith: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3321-1432

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 15 Mar 2019 17:30
Last modified: 20 Jul 2019 00:36

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Contributors

Author: Hsing Wen Lin (林省文)
Author: David W. Gerdes
Author: Stephanie J. Hamilton
Author: Fred C. Adams
Author: Gary M. Bernstein
Author: Masao Sako
Author: Pedro Bernadinelli
Author: Douglas Tucker
Author: Sahar Allam
Author: Juliette C. Becker
Author: Tali Khain
Author: Larissa Markwardt
Author: Kyle Franson
Author: T. M.C. Abbott
Author: J. Annis
Author: S. Avila
Author: D. Brooks
Author: A. Carnero Rosell
Author: M. Carrasco Kind
Author: C. E. Cunha
Author: C. B. D'Andrea
Author: L. N. da Costa
Author: J. De Vicente
Author: P. Doel
Author: T. F. Eifler
Author: B. Flaugher
Author: J. García-Bellido
Author: D. L. Hollowood
Author: Klaus Honscheid
Author: D. J. James
Author: K. Kuehn
Author: N. Kuropatkin
Author: M. A.G. Maia
Author: J. L. Marshall
Author: R. Miquel
Author: A. A. Plazas
Author: A. K. Romer
Author: E. Sanchez
Author: V. Scarpine
Author: I. Sevilla-Noarbe
Author: M. Smith ORCID iD
Author: R. C. Smith
Author: M. Soares-Santos
Author: F. Sobreira
Author: E. Suchyta
Author: G. Tarle
Author: A. R. Walker
Author: W. Wester

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