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Is every strong lens model unhappy in its own way? Uniform modelling of a sample of 13 quadruply+ imaged quasars

Is every strong lens model unhappy in its own way? Uniform modelling of a sample of 13 quadruply+ imaged quasars
Is every strong lens model unhappy in its own way? Uniform modelling of a sample of 13 quadruply+ imaged quasars

Strong-gravitational lens systems with quadruply imaged quasars (quads) are unique probes to address several fundamental problems in cosmology and astrophysics. Although they are intrinsically very rare, ongoing and planned wide-field deep-sky surveys are set to discover thousands of such systems in the next decade. It is thus paramount to devise a general framework to model strong-lens systems to cope with this large influx without being limited by expert investigator time. We propose such a general modelling framework (implemented with the publicly available software lenstronomy) and apply it to uniformly model three-band Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images of 13 quads. This is the largest uniformly modelled sample of quads to date and paves the way for a variety of studies. To illustrate the scientific content of the sample, we investigate the alignment between the mass and light distribution in the deflectors. The position angles of these distributions are well-aligned, except when there is strong external shear. However, we find no correlation between the ellipticity of the light and mass distributions. We also show that the observed flux-ratios between the images depart significantly from the predictions of simple smooth models. The departures are strongest in the bluest band, consistent with microlensing being the dominant cause in addition to millilensing. Future papers will exploit this rich data set in combination with ground-based spectroscopy and time delays to determine quantities such as the Hubble constant, the free streaming length of dark matter, and the normalization of the initial stellar mass function.

galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD, galaxies: structure, gravitational lensing: strong, methods: data analysis
0035-8711
5649-5671
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Shajib, A.J., Birrer, S., Treu, T., Auger, M.W., Agnello, A., Anguita, T., Buckley-Geer, E.J., Chan, J.H.H., Collett, T.E., Courbin, F., Fassnacht, C.D., Frieman, J., Kayo, I., Lemon, C., Lin, H., Marshall, P.J., McMahon, R., More, A., Morgan, N.D., Motta, V., Oguri, M., Ostrovski, F., Rusu, C.E., Schechter, P.L., Shanks, T., Suyu, S.H., Meylan, G., Abbott, T.M.C., Allam, S., Annis, J., Avila, S., Bertin, E., Brooks, D., Carnero Rosell, A., Carrasco Kind, M., Carretero, J., Cunha, C.E., Da Costa, L.N., De Vicente, J., Desai, S., Doel, P., Flaugher, B., Fosalba, P., García-Bellido, J., Gerdes, D.W., Gruen, D., Gruendl, R.A., Gutierrez, G., Hartley, W.G., Hollowood, D.L., Hoyle, B., James, D.J., Kuehn, K., Kuropatkin, N., Lahav, O., Lima, M., Maia, M.A.G., March, M., Marshall, J.L., Melchior, P., Menanteau, F., Miquel, R., Plazas, A.A., Sanchez, E., Scarpine, V., Sevilla-Noarbe, I., Smith, M., Soares-Santos, M., Sobreira, F., Suchyta, E., Swanson, M.E.C., Tarle, G. and Walker, A.R. (2019) Is every strong lens model unhappy in its own way? Uniform modelling of a sample of 13 quadruply+ imaged quasars. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 483 (4), 5649-5671. (doi:10.1093/mnras/sty3397).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Strong-gravitational lens systems with quadruply imaged quasars (quads) are unique probes to address several fundamental problems in cosmology and astrophysics. Although they are intrinsically very rare, ongoing and planned wide-field deep-sky surveys are set to discover thousands of such systems in the next decade. It is thus paramount to devise a general framework to model strong-lens systems to cope with this large influx without being limited by expert investigator time. We propose such a general modelling framework (implemented with the publicly available software lenstronomy) and apply it to uniformly model three-band Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3 images of 13 quads. This is the largest uniformly modelled sample of quads to date and paves the way for a variety of studies. To illustrate the scientific content of the sample, we investigate the alignment between the mass and light distribution in the deflectors. The position angles of these distributions are well-aligned, except when there is strong external shear. However, we find no correlation between the ellipticity of the light and mass distributions. We also show that the observed flux-ratios between the images depart significantly from the predictions of simple smooth models. The departures are strongest in the bluest band, consistent with microlensing being the dominant cause in addition to millilensing. Future papers will exploit this rich data set in combination with ground-based spectroscopy and time delays to determine quantities such as the Hubble constant, the free streaming length of dark matter, and the normalization of the initial stellar mass function.

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Is every strong lens model unhappy in its own way? Uniform modelling of a sample of 13 quadruply + imaged quasars. - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 9 December 2018
e-pub ahead of print date: 17 December 2018
Published date: 11 March 2019
Keywords: galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD, galaxies: structure, gravitational lensing: strong, methods: data analysis

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 429020
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/429020
ISSN: 0035-8711
PURE UUID: 430143f7-8371-470d-bce7-6c2326fba1cf
ORCID for M. Smith: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3321-1432

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 19 Mar 2019 17:30
Last modified: 20 Jul 2019 00:36

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Contributors

Author: A.J. Shajib
Author: S. Birrer
Author: T. Treu
Author: M.W. Auger
Author: A. Agnello
Author: T. Anguita
Author: E.J. Buckley-Geer
Author: J.H.H. Chan
Author: T.E. Collett
Author: F. Courbin
Author: C.D. Fassnacht
Author: J. Frieman
Author: I. Kayo
Author: C. Lemon
Author: H. Lin
Author: P.J. Marshall
Author: R. McMahon
Author: A. More
Author: N.D. Morgan
Author: V. Motta
Author: M. Oguri
Author: F. Ostrovski
Author: C.E. Rusu
Author: P.L. Schechter
Author: T. Shanks
Author: S.H. Suyu
Author: G. Meylan
Author: T.M.C. Abbott
Author: S. Allam
Author: J. Annis
Author: S. Avila
Author: E. Bertin
Author: D. Brooks
Author: A. Carnero Rosell
Author: M. Carrasco Kind
Author: J. Carretero
Author: C.E. Cunha
Author: L.N. Da Costa
Author: J. De Vicente
Author: S. Desai
Author: P. Doel
Author: B. Flaugher
Author: P. Fosalba
Author: J. García-Bellido
Author: D.W. Gerdes
Author: D. Gruen
Author: R.A. Gruendl
Author: G. Gutierrez
Author: W.G. Hartley
Author: D.L. Hollowood
Author: B. Hoyle
Author: D.J. James
Author: K. Kuehn
Author: N. Kuropatkin
Author: O. Lahav
Author: M. Lima
Author: M.A.G. Maia
Author: M. March
Author: J.L. Marshall
Author: P. Melchior
Author: F. Menanteau
Author: R. Miquel
Author: A.A. Plazas
Author: E. Sanchez
Author: V. Scarpine
Author: I. Sevilla-Noarbe
Author: M. Smith ORCID iD
Author: M. Soares-Santos
Author: F. Sobreira
Author: E. Suchyta
Author: M.E.C. Swanson
Author: G. Tarle
Author: A.R. Walker

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