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A printable device for measuring clarity and colour in lake and nearshore waters

A printable device for measuring clarity and colour in lake and nearshore waters
A printable device for measuring clarity and colour in lake and nearshore waters

Two expanding areas of science and technology are citizen science and three-dimensional (3D) printing. Citizen science has a proven capability to generate reliable data and contribute to unexpected scientific discovery. It can put science into the hands of the citizens, increasing understanding, promoting environmental stewardship, and leading to the production of large databases for use in environmental monitoring. 3D printing has the potential to create cheap, bespoke scientific instruments that have formerly required dedicated facilities to assemble. It can put instrument manufacturing into the hands of any citizen who has access to a 3D printer. In this paper, we present a simple hand-held device designed to measure the Secchi depth and water colour (Forel Ule scale) of lake, estuarine and nearshore regions. The device is manufactured with marine resistant materials (mostly biodegradable) using a 3D printer and basic workshop tools. It is inexpensive to manufacture, lightweight, easy to use, and accessible to a wide range of users. It builds on a long tradition in optical limnology and oceanography, but is modified for ease of operation in smaller water bodies, and from small watercraft and platforms. We provide detailed instructions on how to build the device and highlight examples of its use for scientific education, citizen science, satellite validation of ocean colour data, and low-cost monitoring of water clarity, colour and temperature.

3D printing, citizen science, secchi disk, water clarity, water colour
1424-8220
Brewin, Robert J.W.
0aac6e57-b0cb-47f5-9b72-2b3d96629fcc
Brewin, Thomas G.
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Phillips, Joseph
a634795c-47eb-400c-94bc-069923ee66aa
Rose, Sophie
c3de3e1a-0378-4870-9d99-b08a4b3edc2b
Abdulaziz, Anas
c7ebe183-8d33-4c01-926e-0524e98d10a4
Wimmer, Werenfrid
7b66c35e-5f83-4f95-82e3-5ced9614f28d
Sathyendranath, Shubha
6bf2494e-57dd-4785-8413-43776e7e8622
Platt, Trevor
0fd634ff-4484-497e-9167-d618ebdb641d
Brewin, Robert J.W.
0aac6e57-b0cb-47f5-9b72-2b3d96629fcc
Brewin, Thomas G.
a8d2b684-b650-4064-b061-1d625b29ab1c
Phillips, Joseph
a634795c-47eb-400c-94bc-069923ee66aa
Rose, Sophie
c3de3e1a-0378-4870-9d99-b08a4b3edc2b
Abdulaziz, Anas
c7ebe183-8d33-4c01-926e-0524e98d10a4
Wimmer, Werenfrid
7b66c35e-5f83-4f95-82e3-5ced9614f28d
Sathyendranath, Shubha
6bf2494e-57dd-4785-8413-43776e7e8622
Platt, Trevor
0fd634ff-4484-497e-9167-d618ebdb641d

Brewin, Robert J.W., Brewin, Thomas G., Phillips, Joseph, Rose, Sophie, Abdulaziz, Anas, Wimmer, Werenfrid, Sathyendranath, Shubha and Platt, Trevor (2019) A printable device for measuring clarity and colour in lake and nearshore waters. Sensors, 19 (4). (doi:10.3390/s19040936).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Two expanding areas of science and technology are citizen science and three-dimensional (3D) printing. Citizen science has a proven capability to generate reliable data and contribute to unexpected scientific discovery. It can put science into the hands of the citizens, increasing understanding, promoting environmental stewardship, and leading to the production of large databases for use in environmental monitoring. 3D printing has the potential to create cheap, bespoke scientific instruments that have formerly required dedicated facilities to assemble. It can put instrument manufacturing into the hands of any citizen who has access to a 3D printer. In this paper, we present a simple hand-held device designed to measure the Secchi depth and water colour (Forel Ule scale) of lake, estuarine and nearshore regions. The device is manufactured with marine resistant materials (mostly biodegradable) using a 3D printer and basic workshop tools. It is inexpensive to manufacture, lightweight, easy to use, and accessible to a wide range of users. It builds on a long tradition in optical limnology and oceanography, but is modified for ease of operation in smaller water bodies, and from small watercraft and platforms. We provide detailed instructions on how to build the device and highlight examples of its use for scientific education, citizen science, satellite validation of ocean colour data, and low-cost monitoring of water clarity, colour and temperature.

Text
sensors-19-00936-v2-1
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 15 February 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 22 February 2019
Keywords: 3D printing, citizen science, secchi disk, water clarity, water colour

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 429047
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/429047
ISSN: 1424-8220
PURE UUID: 2402e678-f651-47d5-92be-af03be163c05
ORCID for Werenfrid Wimmer: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4693-1161

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 20 Mar 2019 17:30
Last modified: 20 Jul 2019 00:58

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Contributors

Author: Robert J.W. Brewin
Author: Thomas G. Brewin
Author: Joseph Phillips
Author: Sophie Rose
Author: Anas Abdulaziz
Author: Shubha Sathyendranath
Author: Trevor Platt

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