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School age neurological and cognitive outcomes of fetal growth retardation or small for gestational age birth weight

School age neurological and cognitive outcomes of fetal growth retardation or small for gestational age birth weight
School age neurological and cognitive outcomes of fetal growth retardation or small for gestational age birth weight
Children who were growth restricted in utero (FGR) and are born small for gestational age (SGA) may experience poorer long
term neurological and cognitive outcomes. Those also born preterm may have particular difficulties. The objective of this paper
was to review the literature on school age neurocognitive outcome for term and preterm children that was published in the last
fifteen years. Considering term born children first, there is evidence that these children are at higher risk for Cerebral Palsy (CP)
than those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA); information on neuromotor function in the absence of CP is somewhat
contradictory. With regards to cognitive outcome, the most common finding was that being born SGA and/or FGR at term does not
impact negatively on general intellectual functioning, commonly assessed by IQ scores. There was some indication that they may
experience particular problems with attention. With regards to children born preterm, the risk of CP appears not to be increased
compared to those preterms born AGA. For preterm children who do not develop CP, motor outcome is more affected by
post-natal and post-neonatal brain growth than intrauterine growth. In contrast to term born children, preterm SGA and/or FGR
children are at increased risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties, and in common with term born children, are at higher risk
than their AGA counterparts of difficulties with attentional control. In conclusion, preterm born SGA and/or FGR children are at
higher risk of neurodevelopmental problems in the school years. It is important to continue to follow up children into the school
age years because these difficulties may take time to emerge, and may be more visible in the more demanding school
environment.
1664-2392
Vollmer, Brigitte
044f8b55-ba36-4fb2-8e7e-756ab77653ba
Edmonds, Caroline
f78a8541-0dca-4e94-9c70-a935fbbcd838
Vollmer, Brigitte
044f8b55-ba36-4fb2-8e7e-756ab77653ba
Edmonds, Caroline
f78a8541-0dca-4e94-9c70-a935fbbcd838

Vollmer, Brigitte and Edmonds, Caroline (2019) School age neurological and cognitive outcomes of fetal growth retardation or small for gestational age birth weight. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 10, [186]. (doi:10.3389/fendo.2019.00186).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Children who were growth restricted in utero (FGR) and are born small for gestational age (SGA) may experience poorer long
term neurological and cognitive outcomes. Those also born preterm may have particular difficulties. The objective of this paper
was to review the literature on school age neurocognitive outcome for term and preterm children that was published in the last
fifteen years. Considering term born children first, there is evidence that these children are at higher risk for Cerebral Palsy (CP)
than those born appropriate for gestational age (AGA); information on neuromotor function in the absence of CP is somewhat
contradictory. With regards to cognitive outcome, the most common finding was that being born SGA and/or FGR at term does not
impact negatively on general intellectual functioning, commonly assessed by IQ scores. There was some indication that they may
experience particular problems with attention. With regards to children born preterm, the risk of CP appears not to be increased
compared to those preterms born AGA. For preterm children who do not develop CP, motor outcome is more affected by
post-natal and post-neonatal brain growth than intrauterine growth. In contrast to term born children, preterm SGA and/or FGR
children are at increased risk of cognitive and behavioural difficulties, and in common with term born children, are at higher risk
than their AGA counterparts of difficulties with attentional control. In conclusion, preterm born SGA and/or FGR children are at
higher risk of neurodevelopmental problems in the school years. It is important to continue to follow up children into the school
age years because these difficulties may take time to emerge, and may be more visible in the more demanding school
environment.

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Submitted date: 6 March 2019
Accepted/In Press date: 6 March 2019
Published date: 28 March 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 429074
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/429074
ISSN: 1664-2392
PURE UUID: c1e5c4d6-0536-4624-9c3e-d19b34640289
ORCID for Brigitte Vollmer: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4088-5336

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Date deposited: 20 Mar 2019 17:30
Last modified: 10 Jan 2022 02:56

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Author: Caroline Edmonds

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