The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Reaction time variability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: is increased reaction time variability specific to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Testing predictions from the default-mode interference hypothesis

Reaction time variability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: is increased reaction time variability specific to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Testing predictions from the default-mode interference hypothesis
Reaction time variability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: is increased reaction time variability specific to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Testing predictions from the default-mode interference hypothesis

Increased reaction time variability (RTV) is one of the most replicable behavioral correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, this may not be specific to ADHD but a more general marker of psychopathology. Here we compare RT variability in individuals with ADHD and those with other childhood internalizing and externalizing conditions both in terms of standard (i.e., the standard deviation of reaction time) and alternative indices that capture low-frequency oscillatory patterns in RT variations over time thought to mark periodic lapses of attention in ADHD. A total of 667 participants (6–12 years old) were classified into non-overlapping diagnostic groups consisting of children with fear disorders (n = 91), distress disorders (n = 56), ADHD (n = 103), oppositional defiant or conduct disorder (ODD/CD; n = 40) and typically developing controls (TDC; n = 377). We used a simple two-choice reaction time task to measure reaction time. The strength of oscillations in RTs across the session was extracted using spectral analyses. Higher RTV was present in ADHD compared to all other disorder groups, effects that were equally strong across all frequency bands. Interestingly, we found that lower RTV to characterize ODD/CD relative to TDC, a finding that was more pronounced at lower frequencies. In general, our data support RTV as a specific marker of ADHD. RT variation across time in ADHD did not show periodicity in a specific frequency band, not supporting that ADHD RTV is the product of spontaneous periodic lapses of attention. Low-frequency oscillations may be particularly useful to differentiate ODD/CD from TDC.

Attentional lapses, Conduct disorder, Oppositional defiant disorder, Reaction time variability, State regulation
1866-6116
47-58
Salum, Giovanni A.
0f583594-247d-4b0d-b646-0bdac597c60d
Sato, João R.
11e8edf5-158d-4425-b246-0867e89609f6
Manfro, Arthur G.
8c045730-ab50-494a-9d22-8cda86bb4292
Pan, Pedro M.
be4f9b26-fdfb-4d95-9527-269d9e95faea
Gadelha, Ary
27d5390a-66d1-4ed1-904e-8272ea048b29
do Rosário, Maria C.
0fc53f78-003c-4cf5-b873-6cf14e4c21b7
Polanczyk, Guilherme V.
794ddae7-f894-48fc-a90a-af190ab728a8
Castellanos, Francisco X.
bd1644e9-cb92-4e21-a493-51d526e00c4c
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
bc80bf95-6cf9-4c76-a09d-eaaf0b717635
Rohde, Luis A.
0cf3b1d3-7d83-4dc9-9cec-6d79276ead66
Salum, Giovanni A.
0f583594-247d-4b0d-b646-0bdac597c60d
Sato, João R.
11e8edf5-158d-4425-b246-0867e89609f6
Manfro, Arthur G.
8c045730-ab50-494a-9d22-8cda86bb4292
Pan, Pedro M.
be4f9b26-fdfb-4d95-9527-269d9e95faea
Gadelha, Ary
27d5390a-66d1-4ed1-904e-8272ea048b29
do Rosário, Maria C.
0fc53f78-003c-4cf5-b873-6cf14e4c21b7
Polanczyk, Guilherme V.
794ddae7-f894-48fc-a90a-af190ab728a8
Castellanos, Francisco X.
bd1644e9-cb92-4e21-a493-51d526e00c4c
Sonuga-Barke, Edmund
bc80bf95-6cf9-4c76-a09d-eaaf0b717635
Rohde, Luis A.
0cf3b1d3-7d83-4dc9-9cec-6d79276ead66

Salum, Giovanni A., Sato, João R., Manfro, Arthur G., Pan, Pedro M., Gadelha, Ary, do Rosário, Maria C., Polanczyk, Guilherme V., Castellanos, Francisco X., Sonuga-Barke, Edmund and Rohde, Luis A. (2019) Reaction time variability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: is increased reaction time variability specific to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder? Testing predictions from the default-mode interference hypothesis. ADHD Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 11 (1), 47-58. (doi:10.1007/s12402-018-0257-x).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Increased reaction time variability (RTV) is one of the most replicable behavioral correlates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, this may not be specific to ADHD but a more general marker of psychopathology. Here we compare RT variability in individuals with ADHD and those with other childhood internalizing and externalizing conditions both in terms of standard (i.e., the standard deviation of reaction time) and alternative indices that capture low-frequency oscillatory patterns in RT variations over time thought to mark periodic lapses of attention in ADHD. A total of 667 participants (6–12 years old) were classified into non-overlapping diagnostic groups consisting of children with fear disorders (n = 91), distress disorders (n = 56), ADHD (n = 103), oppositional defiant or conduct disorder (ODD/CD; n = 40) and typically developing controls (TDC; n = 377). We used a simple two-choice reaction time task to measure reaction time. The strength of oscillations in RTs across the session was extracted using spectral analyses. Higher RTV was present in ADHD compared to all other disorder groups, effects that were equally strong across all frequency bands. Interestingly, we found that lower RTV to characterize ODD/CD relative to TDC, a finding that was more pronounced at lower frequencies. In general, our data support RTV as a specific marker of ADHD. RT variation across time in ADHD did not show periodicity in a specific frequency band, not supporting that ADHD RTV is the product of spontaneous periodic lapses of attention. Low-frequency oscillations may be particularly useful to differentiate ODD/CD from TDC.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Accepted/In Press date: 8 June 2018
Published date: 4 March 2019
Keywords: Attentional lapses, Conduct disorder, Oppositional defiant disorder, Reaction time variability, State regulation

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 430066
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/430066
ISSN: 1866-6116
PURE UUID: 51be8062-9994-436a-8d61-a9e4c832651e

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 11 Apr 2019 16:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 00:23

Export record

Altmetrics

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×