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Autonomous seawater pCO 2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends

Autonomous seawater pCO 2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends
Autonomous seawater pCO 2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends

Ship-based time series, some now approaching over 3 decades long, are critical climate records that have dramatically improved our ability to characterize natural and anthropogenic drivers of ocean carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake and biogeochemical processes. Advancements in autonomous marine carbon sensors and technologies over the last 2 decades have led to the expansion of observations at fixed time series sites, thereby improving the capability of characterizing sub-seasonal variability in the ocean. Here, we present a data product of 40 individual autonomous moored surface ocean pCO 2 (partial pressure of CO 2 ) time series established between 2004 and 2013, 17 also include autonomous pH measurements. These time series characterize a wide range of surface ocean carbonate conditions in different oceanic (17 sites), coastal (13 sites), and coral reef (10 sites) regimes. A time of trend emergence (ToE) methodology applied to the time series that exhibit well-constrained daily to interannual variability and an estimate of decadal variability indicates that the length of sustained observations necessary to detect statistically significant anthropogenic trends varies by marine environment. The ToE estimates for seawater pCO 2 and pH range from 8 to 15 years at the open ocean sites, 16 to 41 years at the coastal sites, and 9 to 22 years at the coral reef sites. Only two open ocean pCO 2 time series, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station (WHOTS) in the subtropical North Pacific and Stratus in the South Pacific gyre, have been deployed longer than the estimated trend detection time and, for these, deseasoned monthly means show estimated anthropogenic trends of 1.9±0.3 and 1.6±0.3μatm yr -1 , respectively. In the future, it is possible that updates to this product will allow for the estimation of anthropogenic trends at more sites; however, the product currently provides a valuable tool in an accessible format for evaluating climatology and natural variability of surface ocean carbonate chemistry in a variety of regions. Data are available at https://doi.org/10.7289/V5DB8043 and https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/ocads/oceans/Moorings/ndp097.html (Sutton et al., 2018).

1866-3508
421-439
Sutton, Adrienne J.
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Feely, Richard A.
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Maenner-Jones, Stacy
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Musielwicz, Sylvia
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Osborne, John
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Dietrich, Colin
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Monacci, Natalie
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Cross, Jessica
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Bott, Randy
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Kozyr, Alex
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Andersson, Andreas J.
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Bates, Nicholas R.
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Cai, Wei Jun
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Cronin, Meghan F.
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De Carlo, Eric H.
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Hales, Burke
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Howden, Stephan D.
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Lee, Charity M.
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Manzello, Derek P.
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McPhaden, Michael J.
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Meléndez, Melissa
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Newton, Jan A.
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Noakes, Scott E.
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Noh, Jae Hoon
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Olafsdottir, Solveig R.
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Salisbury, Joseph E.
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Send, Uwe
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Sutton, Adrienne J.
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Feely, Richard A.
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Maenner-Jones, Stacy
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Musielwicz, Sylvia
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Osborne, John
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Monacci, Natalie
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Cross, Jessica
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Bott, Randy
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Kozyr, Alex
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Cai, Wei Jun
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Cronin, Meghan F.
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De Carlo, Eric H.
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Hales, Burke
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Howden, Stephan D.
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Lee, Charity M.
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Manzello, Derek P.
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McPhaden, Michael J.
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Meléndez, Melissa
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Mickett, John B.
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Newton, Jan A.
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Noakes, Scott E.
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Noh, Jae Hoon
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Olafsdottir, Solveig R.
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Salisbury, Joseph E.
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Send, Uwe
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Trull, Thomas W.
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Vandemark, Douglas C.
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Weller, Robert A.
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Sutton, Adrienne J., Feely, Richard A., Maenner-Jones, Stacy, Musielwicz, Sylvia, Osborne, John, Dietrich, Colin, Monacci, Natalie, Cross, Jessica, Bott, Randy, Kozyr, Alex, Andersson, Andreas J., Bates, Nicholas R., Cai, Wei Jun, Cronin, Meghan F., De Carlo, Eric H., Hales, Burke, Howden, Stephan D., Lee, Charity M., Manzello, Derek P., McPhaden, Michael J., Meléndez, Melissa, Mickett, John B., Newton, Jan A., Noakes, Scott E., Noh, Jae Hoon, Olafsdottir, Solveig R., Salisbury, Joseph E., Send, Uwe, Trull, Thomas W., Vandemark, Douglas C. and Weller, Robert A. (2019) Autonomous seawater pCO 2 and pH time series from 40 surface buoys and the emergence of anthropogenic trends. Earth System Science Data, 11 (1), 421-439. (doi:10.5194/essd-11-421-2019).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Ship-based time series, some now approaching over 3 decades long, are critical climate records that have dramatically improved our ability to characterize natural and anthropogenic drivers of ocean carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) uptake and biogeochemical processes. Advancements in autonomous marine carbon sensors and technologies over the last 2 decades have led to the expansion of observations at fixed time series sites, thereby improving the capability of characterizing sub-seasonal variability in the ocean. Here, we present a data product of 40 individual autonomous moored surface ocean pCO 2 (partial pressure of CO 2 ) time series established between 2004 and 2013, 17 also include autonomous pH measurements. These time series characterize a wide range of surface ocean carbonate conditions in different oceanic (17 sites), coastal (13 sites), and coral reef (10 sites) regimes. A time of trend emergence (ToE) methodology applied to the time series that exhibit well-constrained daily to interannual variability and an estimate of decadal variability indicates that the length of sustained observations necessary to detect statistically significant anthropogenic trends varies by marine environment. The ToE estimates for seawater pCO 2 and pH range from 8 to 15 years at the open ocean sites, 16 to 41 years at the coastal sites, and 9 to 22 years at the coral reef sites. Only two open ocean pCO 2 time series, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station (WHOTS) in the subtropical North Pacific and Stratus in the South Pacific gyre, have been deployed longer than the estimated trend detection time and, for these, deseasoned monthly means show estimated anthropogenic trends of 1.9±0.3 and 1.6±0.3μatm yr -1 , respectively. In the future, it is possible that updates to this product will allow for the estimation of anthropogenic trends at more sites; however, the product currently provides a valuable tool in an accessible format for evaluating climatology and natural variability of surface ocean carbonate chemistry in a variety of regions. Data are available at https://doi.org/10.7289/V5DB8043 and https://www.nodc.noaa.gov/ocads/oceans/Moorings/ndp097.html (Sutton et al., 2018).

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Accepted/In Press date: 21 February 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 26 March 2019
Published date: 26 March 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 430071
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/430071
ISSN: 1866-3508
PURE UUID: ba262852-c39c-4dc0-b7c7-cb3679154a81

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Date deposited: 11 Apr 2019 16:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 00:52

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Contributors

Author: Adrienne J. Sutton
Author: Richard A. Feely
Author: Stacy Maenner-Jones
Author: Sylvia Musielwicz
Author: John Osborne
Author: Colin Dietrich
Author: Natalie Monacci
Author: Jessica Cross
Author: Randy Bott
Author: Alex Kozyr
Author: Andreas J. Andersson
Author: Wei Jun Cai
Author: Meghan F. Cronin
Author: Eric H. De Carlo
Author: Burke Hales
Author: Stephan D. Howden
Author: Charity M. Lee
Author: Derek P. Manzello
Author: Michael J. McPhaden
Author: Melissa Meléndez
Author: John B. Mickett
Author: Jan A. Newton
Author: Scott E. Noakes
Author: Jae Hoon Noh
Author: Solveig R. Olafsdottir
Author: Joseph E. Salisbury
Author: Uwe Send
Author: Thomas W. Trull
Author: Douglas C. Vandemark
Author: Robert A. Weller

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