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The association between a detectable HIV viral load and non-communicable diseases comorbidity in HIV positive adults on antiretroviral therapy in Western Cape, South Africa

The association between a detectable HIV viral load and non-communicable diseases comorbidity in HIV positive adults on antiretroviral therapy in Western Cape, South Africa
The association between a detectable HIV viral load and non-communicable diseases comorbidity in HIV positive adults on antiretroviral therapy in Western Cape, South Africa
Background Past studies have found a relationship between detectable HIV viral load and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in high-income settings, however there is little research in South Africa. Our objective was to investigate the association between detectable HIV viral load and prevalent NCDs in a primary health centre in peri-urban South Africa.Methods HIV-infected adults (aged ≥25) who had been on antiretroviral therapy for ≥ six months and attended the HIV clinic within a primary health centre in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, were recruited. We recorded participants’ demographics, HIV characteristics, the presence of NCDs via self-report, from clinic folders and from measurement of their blood pressure on the day of interview. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between a detectable HIV viral load and NCD comorbidity.Results We recruited 330 adults. We found no association between a detectable HIV viral load and NCD comorbidity. Within our multivariable model, female gender (OR3·26; p = 0·02) age > 35 (OR 0·40; p = 0·02) low CD4 count (compared to CD4 < 300 (reference category): CD4:300–449 OR 0·28; CD4:450–599 OR 0·12, CD4:≥600 OR 0·12; p = < 0·001), and ever smoking (OR 3·95; p = < 0·001) were associated with a detectable HIV viral load. We found a lower prevalence of non-communicable disease in clinic folders than was self-reported. Furthermore the prevalence of hypertension measured on the day of interview was greater than that reported on self-report or in the clinic folders.Conclusions The lack of association between detectable viral load and NCDs in this setting is consistent with previous investigation in South Africa but differs from studies in high-income countries. Lower NCD prevalence in clinic records than self-report and a higher level of hypertension on the day than self-reported or recorded in clinic folders suggest under-diagnosis of NCDs in this population. This potential under-detection of NCDs may differ from a high-income setting and have contributed to our finding of a null association. Our findings also highlight the importance of the integration of HIV and primary care systems to facilitate routine monitoring for non-communicable diseases in HIV-infected patients.
1471-2334
George, S.
b035660d-4501-4592-bdd8-aedaa7ecfbe7
Mcgrath, N.
b75c0232-24ec-443f-93a9-69e9e12dc961
Oni, T.
6699293e-9c40-4784-ab6c-a4e55a7649cc
George, S.
b035660d-4501-4592-bdd8-aedaa7ecfbe7
Mcgrath, N.
b75c0232-24ec-443f-93a9-69e9e12dc961
Oni, T.
6699293e-9c40-4784-ab6c-a4e55a7649cc

George, S., Mcgrath, N. and Oni, T. (2019) The association between a detectable HIV viral load and non-communicable diseases comorbidity in HIV positive adults on antiretroviral therapy in Western Cape, South Africa. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19. (doi:10.1186/s12879-019-3956-9).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background Past studies have found a relationship between detectable HIV viral load and non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy in high-income settings, however there is little research in South Africa. Our objective was to investigate the association between detectable HIV viral load and prevalent NCDs in a primary health centre in peri-urban South Africa.Methods HIV-infected adults (aged ≥25) who had been on antiretroviral therapy for ≥ six months and attended the HIV clinic within a primary health centre in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, were recruited. We recorded participants’ demographics, HIV characteristics, the presence of NCDs via self-report, from clinic folders and from measurement of their blood pressure on the day of interview. We used logistic regression to estimate the association between a detectable HIV viral load and NCD comorbidity.Results We recruited 330 adults. We found no association between a detectable HIV viral load and NCD comorbidity. Within our multivariable model, female gender (OR3·26; p = 0·02) age > 35 (OR 0·40; p = 0·02) low CD4 count (compared to CD4 < 300 (reference category): CD4:300–449 OR 0·28; CD4:450–599 OR 0·12, CD4:≥600 OR 0·12; p = < 0·001), and ever smoking (OR 3·95; p = < 0·001) were associated with a detectable HIV viral load. We found a lower prevalence of non-communicable disease in clinic folders than was self-reported. Furthermore the prevalence of hypertension measured on the day of interview was greater than that reported on self-report or in the clinic folders.Conclusions The lack of association between detectable viral load and NCDs in this setting is consistent with previous investigation in South Africa but differs from studies in high-income countries. Lower NCD prevalence in clinic records than self-report and a higher level of hypertension on the day than self-reported or recorded in clinic folders suggest under-diagnosis of NCDs in this population. This potential under-detection of NCDs may differ from a high-income setting and have contributed to our finding of a null association. Our findings also highlight the importance of the integration of HIV and primary care systems to facilitate routine monitoring for non-communicable diseases in HIV-infected patients.

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The Association between a Detectable HIV Viral Load and Non-Communicable Diseases Comorbidity in HIV positive adults on antiretroviral the - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 9 April 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 27 April 2019

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Local EPrints ID: 430322
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/430322
ISSN: 1471-2334
PURE UUID: 1f4ff93d-cf9d-4c89-9496-5e91fee90b69

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Date deposited: 25 Apr 2019 16:30
Last modified: 09 May 2019 16:30

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