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How well can we estimate Pedersen conductance from the THEMIS white-light all-sky cameras?

How well can we estimate Pedersen conductance from the THEMIS white-light all-sky cameras?
How well can we estimate Pedersen conductance from the THEMIS white-light all-sky cameras?

We show that a white-light all-sky imager can estimate Pedersen conductance with an uncertainty of 3 mho or 40%. Using a series of case studies over a wide range of geomagnetic activity, we compare estimates of Pedersen conductance from the backscatter spectrum of the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar with auroral intensities. We limit this comparison to an area bounding the radar measurements and within a limited area close to (but off) imager zenith. We confirm a linear relationship between conductance and the square root of auroral intensity predicted from a simple theoretical approximation. Hence, we extend a previous empirical result found for green-line emissions to the case of white-light off-zenith emissions. The difference between the radar conductance and the best-fit relationship has a mean of −0.76 ± 4.8 mho and a relative mean difference of 21% ± 78%. The uncertainties are reduced to −0.72 ± 3.3 mho and 0% ± 40% by averaging conductance over 10 min, which we attribute to the time that auroral features take to move across the imager field being greater than the 1-min resolution of the radar data. Our results demonstrate and calibrate the use of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms all-sky imagers for estimating Pedersen conductance. This technique allows the extension of estimates of Pedersen conductance from Incoherent Scatter Radars to derive continental-scale estimates on scales of ~1–10 min and ~100 km 2 . It thus complements estimates from low-altitude satellites, satellite auroral imagers, and ground-based magnetometers.

all-sky imager, aurora, incoherent scatter radar, Pedersen conductance, substorm
2169-9380
2920-2934
Lam, M. M.
99e04519-04c8-4f47-8658-1c8bb31e1421
Freeman, M. P.
dc974e00-a73d-4d41-a2a8-3c5aebd7a5b5
Jackman, C. M.
9bc3456c-b254-48f1-ade0-912c5b8b4529
Rae, I. J.
25677763-0501-4b69-859e-fab930260c69
Kalmoni, N. M.E.
0ebd24e3-ebef-4498-8ab9-428b956b1437
Sandhu, J. K.
f7695906-560e-4688-ab02-c387ebc5afc7
Forsyth, C.
f3d464cf-81c5-4647-b85a-bc3634bdf076
Lam, M. M.
99e04519-04c8-4f47-8658-1c8bb31e1421
Freeman, M. P.
dc974e00-a73d-4d41-a2a8-3c5aebd7a5b5
Jackman, C. M.
9bc3456c-b254-48f1-ade0-912c5b8b4529
Rae, I. J.
25677763-0501-4b69-859e-fab930260c69
Kalmoni, N. M.E.
0ebd24e3-ebef-4498-8ab9-428b956b1437
Sandhu, J. K.
f7695906-560e-4688-ab02-c387ebc5afc7
Forsyth, C.
f3d464cf-81c5-4647-b85a-bc3634bdf076

Lam, M. M., Freeman, M. P., Jackman, C. M., Rae, I. J., Kalmoni, N. M.E., Sandhu, J. K. and Forsyth, C. (2019) How well can we estimate Pedersen conductance from the THEMIS white-light all-sky cameras? Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 124 (4), 2920-2934. (doi:10.1029/2018JA026067).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We show that a white-light all-sky imager can estimate Pedersen conductance with an uncertainty of 3 mho or 40%. Using a series of case studies over a wide range of geomagnetic activity, we compare estimates of Pedersen conductance from the backscatter spectrum of the Poker Flat Incoherent Scatter Radar with auroral intensities. We limit this comparison to an area bounding the radar measurements and within a limited area close to (but off) imager zenith. We confirm a linear relationship between conductance and the square root of auroral intensity predicted from a simple theoretical approximation. Hence, we extend a previous empirical result found for green-line emissions to the case of white-light off-zenith emissions. The difference between the radar conductance and the best-fit relationship has a mean of −0.76 ± 4.8 mho and a relative mean difference of 21% ± 78%. The uncertainties are reduced to −0.72 ± 3.3 mho and 0% ± 40% by averaging conductance over 10 min, which we attribute to the time that auroral features take to move across the imager field being greater than the 1-min resolution of the radar data. Our results demonstrate and calibrate the use of Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms all-sky imagers for estimating Pedersen conductance. This technique allows the extension of estimates of Pedersen conductance from Incoherent Scatter Radars to derive continental-scale estimates on scales of ~1–10 min and ~100 km 2 . It thus complements estimates from low-altitude satellites, satellite auroral imagers, and ground-based magnetometers.

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How Well Can We Estimate Pedersen Conductance From the THEMIS White-Light All-Sky Cameras - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 6 March 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 12 March 2019
Published date: April 2019
Keywords: all-sky imager, aurora, incoherent scatter radar, Pedersen conductance, substorm

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 430948
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/430948
ISSN: 2169-9380
PURE UUID: aa615026-ee07-4d9a-ac13-811b3fbd5a96

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Date deposited: 17 May 2019 16:30
Last modified: 08 Nov 2019 05:01

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Contributors

Author: M. M. Lam
Author: M. P. Freeman
Author: C. M. Jackman
Author: I. J. Rae
Author: N. M.E. Kalmoni
Author: J. K. Sandhu
Author: C. Forsyth

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