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Design and implementation of fiber-embedded plasmonic structures in microwires

Design and implementation of fiber-embedded plasmonic structures in microwires
Design and implementation of fiber-embedded plasmonic structures in microwires
Plasmonic structures can dramatically enhance photonic devices functionality [1] by providing controllable field confinement and light nanofocussing which are crucial for imaging, diagnostic, and sensing applications. Pure metallic tips or metal coated optical fibers have been demonstrated as fiber-compatible efficient plasmonic devices [2] but with limited applicability in real applications due to fragility and limited environmental robustness.

The proposed platform based on hybrid microwires composed of metal core and silicate glass cladding offers the required robustness and flexibility for engineering and developing plasmonic devices in all-fiber form [3]. The presence of the dielectric cladding offers continuous re-excitation of the plasmon modes due to repeated total internal reflection at the glass/air interface, which can dramatically reduce the high losses induced by the metal core and allow long propagation distances. This enables direct light coupling from the distal end of fiber instead of side excitation of the tip, allowing their integration in optical fiber or and planar integrated circuitry for hybrid architectures. By employing the heating and stretching thermal processing method for diameter tapering of microwires with gold core, high-quality all-fiber plasmonic tips with high field intensity at the tip apex have been fabricated. Furthermore, embedded metal microspheres, as seen in the figure, were controllably formed targeting to the development of in-fiber plasmonic resonators.

Extensive theoretical and experimental investigations were necessary for the identification of appropriate tapering conditions and adiabatic metal tips development with well-defined geometrical characteristics. In this context, analytical studies and microfluidic simulations by Finite Element Method — FEM were performed for the understanding of the appropriate thermal processing conditions of microwires and their behaviour towards their diameter tapering without discontinuities and metal core breakage. Fabricated plasmonic tips performance was successfully related to simulation results by FEM, predicting high field enhancement factors up to 105. Furthermore, theoretical investigations of instabilities-driven formation of gold microspheres embedded in the glass cladding by heating the hybrid microfibers was also performed suggesting ways to control the spherical formed features.
Petropoulou, A.
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Antonopoulos, G.
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Bastock, P.
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Kakarantzas, G.
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Craig, C.
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Drikakis, D.
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Hewak, D.
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Zervas, M.
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Riziotis, C.
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Petropoulou, A.
d6998468-ed8f-4397-869d-68c57b9919de
Antonopoulos, G.
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Bastock, P.
73583809-d787-4eb4-8b93-2110c5e2f29e
Kakarantzas, G.
d69de226-a331-4718-ad39-a97e6d1a199f
Craig, C.
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Drikakis, D.
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Hewak, D.
87c80070-c101-4f7a-914f-4cc3131e3db0
Zervas, M.
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Riziotis, C.
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Petropoulou, A., Antonopoulos, G., Bastock, P., Kakarantzas, G., Craig, C., Drikakis, D., Hewak, D., Zervas, M. and Riziotis, C. (2019) Design and implementation of fiber-embedded plasmonic structures in microwires. PIERS 2019: Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Italy. 17 - 20 Jun 2019. 2 pp .

Record type: Conference or Workshop Item (Other)

Abstract

Plasmonic structures can dramatically enhance photonic devices functionality [1] by providing controllable field confinement and light nanofocussing which are crucial for imaging, diagnostic, and sensing applications. Pure metallic tips or metal coated optical fibers have been demonstrated as fiber-compatible efficient plasmonic devices [2] but with limited applicability in real applications due to fragility and limited environmental robustness.

The proposed platform based on hybrid microwires composed of metal core and silicate glass cladding offers the required robustness and flexibility for engineering and developing plasmonic devices in all-fiber form [3]. The presence of the dielectric cladding offers continuous re-excitation of the plasmon modes due to repeated total internal reflection at the glass/air interface, which can dramatically reduce the high losses induced by the metal core and allow long propagation distances. This enables direct light coupling from the distal end of fiber instead of side excitation of the tip, allowing their integration in optical fiber or and planar integrated circuitry for hybrid architectures. By employing the heating and stretching thermal processing method for diameter tapering of microwires with gold core, high-quality all-fiber plasmonic tips with high field intensity at the tip apex have been fabricated. Furthermore, embedded metal microspheres, as seen in the figure, were controllably formed targeting to the development of in-fiber plasmonic resonators.

Extensive theoretical and experimental investigations were necessary for the identification of appropriate tapering conditions and adiabatic metal tips development with well-defined geometrical characteristics. In this context, analytical studies and microfluidic simulations by Finite Element Method — FEM were performed for the understanding of the appropriate thermal processing conditions of microwires and their behaviour towards their diameter tapering without discontinuities and metal core breakage. Fabricated plasmonic tips performance was successfully related to simulation results by FEM, predicting high field enhancement factors up to 105. Furthermore, theoretical investigations of instabilities-driven formation of gold microspheres embedded in the glass cladding by heating the hybrid microfibers was also performed suggesting ways to control the spherical formed features.

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Published date: 17 June 2019
Venue - Dates: PIERS 2019: Progress In Electromagnetics Research Symposium, Italy, 2019-06-17 - 2019-06-20

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 430991
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/430991
PURE UUID: 4e61ac03-ffab-425c-a60f-be549e0b9daf
ORCID for C. Craig: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-6919-4294
ORCID for D. Hewak: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-2093-5773
ORCID for M. Zervas: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-0651-4059

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Date deposited: 21 May 2019 16:30
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 17:18

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Contributors

Author: A. Petropoulou
Author: G. Antonopoulos
Author: P. Bastock
Author: G. Kakarantzas
Author: C. Craig ORCID iD
Author: D. Drikakis
Author: D. Hewak ORCID iD
Author: M. Zervas ORCID iD
Author: C. Riziotis

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