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The application of new approaches to the analysis of deposits from the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT)

The application of new approaches to the analysis of deposits from the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT)
The application of new approaches to the analysis of deposits from the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT)
Studies of diesel system deposits continue to be the subject of interest and publications worldwide. The introduction of high pressure common rail systems resulting in high fuel temperatures in the system with the concomitant use of fuels of varying solubilizing ability (e.g. ULSD and FAME blends) have seen deposits formed at the tip of the injector and on various internal injector components. Though deposit control additives (DCAs) have been successfully deployed to mitigate the deposit formation, work is still required to understand the nature and composition of these deposits.

The study of both tip and internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) has seen the development of a number of bench techniques in an attempt to mimic field injector deposits in the laboratory. One of the most used of these is the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester or JFTOT (ASTM D3241). The tester was originally designed to assess the oxidation of jet fuel, based on the principle that low stability fuels produce deposits that form on metal surfaces. Recently it has been modified so that under suitable conditions it may be used to determine the deposit forming potential of diesel fuels. The JFTOT technique has been used by a number of groups to try and understand diesel injector deposits. The ineradicable nature of the material on the JFTOT tube has seen the deposits analyzed by laser scanning microscopy, ellipsometry and recently infra-red microscopy. Other methods have been invasive involving either solvent washing or scraping off the deposit. In this paper other techniques for the analysis of deposits will be described yielding both chemical and metrological characteristics of the deposits. Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIRM), and Time-of- Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToFSIMS) will be used to describe the surface characteristics. Measurements from a Profile meter will be used to estimate deposit surface roughness and data from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) will be employed to describe the morphology.
The final techniques described will be Direct Analysis In Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DARTMS) using ambient mass spectrometry. and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) The advantage of the DART method is that mixtures and objects can be subjected to mass spectrometric analysis with the minimum of pre-treatment and sample preparation. Thus the technique is well suited for analyzing deposits on JFTOT tubes as it requires little sample preparation. A number of studies of materials
deposited on JFTOT tubes will be described showing the suitability of these techniques for analyzing and providing the potential characterization of JFTOT deposits. The FTICRMS will be used to assign species in the JFTOT test fuels both pre and post test.
Barker, Jim
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Reid, Jacqueline
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Smith, Sarah Angel
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Snape, Colin
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Scurr, David
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Langley, G. John
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Patel, Krina
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Carter, Anastarsia, Christine Marrie-Louise
fd9e161d-81d3-4eab-beb4-8bda136b1814
Lapthorn, Cris
afa1ff56-726f-4e9d-a44a-2aaba1a8873a
Pullen, Frank
dcaefc39-4e98-4b57-b214-77789b6efb80
Barker, Jim
e083f63a-1237-4f7b-beb0-e23af04311b4
Reid, Jacqueline
482ed475-b637-41bb-a82a-eb851b05b872
Smith, Sarah Angel
0501704e-1cc7-446f-8d1b-c69978094525
Snape, Colin
6195be4c-9223-4792-aa5b-0ad437d072ed
Scurr, David
5e00e5ba-3b5f-4eda-b6f6-fdd844e92661
Langley, G. John
7ac80d61-b91d-4261-ad17-255f94ea21ea
Patel, Krina
57bc22ee-ea70-46c1-a874-46cbd2db3e25
Carter, Anastarsia, Christine Marrie-Louise
fd9e161d-81d3-4eab-beb4-8bda136b1814
Lapthorn, Cris
afa1ff56-726f-4e9d-a44a-2aaba1a8873a
Pullen, Frank
dcaefc39-4e98-4b57-b214-77789b6efb80

Barker, Jim, Reid, Jacqueline, Smith, Sarah Angel, Snape, Colin, Scurr, David, Langley, G. John, Patel, Krina, Carter, Anastarsia, Christine Marrie-Louise, Lapthorn, Cris and Pullen, Frank (2017) The application of new approaches to the analysis of deposits from the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT). SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants, 10 (3). (doi:10.4271/2017-01-2293).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Studies of diesel system deposits continue to be the subject of interest and publications worldwide. The introduction of high pressure common rail systems resulting in high fuel temperatures in the system with the concomitant use of fuels of varying solubilizing ability (e.g. ULSD and FAME blends) have seen deposits formed at the tip of the injector and on various internal injector components. Though deposit control additives (DCAs) have been successfully deployed to mitigate the deposit formation, work is still required to understand the nature and composition of these deposits.

The study of both tip and internal diesel injector deposits (IDID) has seen the development of a number of bench techniques in an attempt to mimic field injector deposits in the laboratory. One of the most used of these is the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester or JFTOT (ASTM D3241). The tester was originally designed to assess the oxidation of jet fuel, based on the principle that low stability fuels produce deposits that form on metal surfaces. Recently it has been modified so that under suitable conditions it may be used to determine the deposit forming potential of diesel fuels. The JFTOT technique has been used by a number of groups to try and understand diesel injector deposits. The ineradicable nature of the material on the JFTOT tube has seen the deposits analyzed by laser scanning microscopy, ellipsometry and recently infra-red microscopy. Other methods have been invasive involving either solvent washing or scraping off the deposit. In this paper other techniques for the analysis of deposits will be described yielding both chemical and metrological characteristics of the deposits. Fourier Transform Infrared Microscopy (FTIRM), and Time-of- Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToFSIMS) will be used to describe the surface characteristics. Measurements from a Profile meter will be used to estimate deposit surface roughness and data from Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) will be employed to describe the morphology.
The final techniques described will be Direct Analysis In Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DARTMS) using ambient mass spectrometry. and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) The advantage of the DART method is that mixtures and objects can be subjected to mass spectrometric analysis with the minimum of pre-treatment and sample preparation. Thus the technique is well suited for analyzing deposits on JFTOT tubes as it requires little sample preparation. A number of studies of materials
deposited on JFTOT tubes will be described showing the suitability of these techniques for analyzing and providing the potential characterization of JFTOT deposits. The FTICRMS will be used to assign species in the JFTOT test fuels both pre and post test.

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Published date: 8 October 2017

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 431200
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/431200
PURE UUID: 1ba9d4c9-326e-4967-bc2f-fe6bcb231a9b
ORCID for G. John Langley: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-8323-7235

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Date deposited: 24 May 2019 16:30
Last modified: 20 Jul 2019 01:23

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Contributors

Author: Jim Barker
Author: Jacqueline Reid
Author: Sarah Angel Smith
Author: Colin Snape
Author: David Scurr
Author: G. John Langley ORCID iD
Author: Krina Patel
Author: Anastarsia, Christine Marrie-Louise Carter
Author: Cris Lapthorn
Author: Frank Pullen

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