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Horizontal crank position affects economy and upper limb kinematics of recumbent handcyclists

Horizontal crank position affects economy and upper limb kinematics of recumbent handcyclists
Horizontal crank position affects economy and upper limb kinematics of recumbent handcyclists

Purpose: To determine the effects of horizontal crank position on economy and upper limb kinematics in recumbent handcycling.

Methods: Fifteen trained handcyclists performed trials at 50% and 70% of their peak aerobic power output (POPeak), determined during a maximal ramp test, in each horizontal crank position. Four horizontal crank positions, 94%, 97%, 100% and 103% of arm length, were investigated. Horizontal crank positions were defined as the distance between the acromion angle to the centre of the handgrip, while the crank arm was parallel to the floor and pointing away from the participant. Economy and upper limb kinematics were calculated during the final minute of each three-minute trial.

Results:Horizontal crank position significantly affected handcycling economy at 70% POPeak (P < 0.01) but not at 50% POPeak (P = 0.44). The 97% horizontal crank position (16.0 (1.5) mL·min-1·W-1) was significantly more economical than the 94% (16.7 (1.9) mL·min-1·W-1) (P = 0.04) and 103% (16.6 (1.7) mL·min-1·W-1) (P < 0.01) positions. The 100 % horizontal crank position (16.2 (1.7) mL·min-1·W-1) was significantly more economical than the 103% position (P <0.01). Statistical parametric mapping indicated that an increase in horizontal crank position, from 94% to 103%, caused a significant increase in elbow extension, shoulder flexion, adduction, internal rotation, scapular internal rotation, wrist flexion, clavicle depression and clavicle protraction between 0 – 50 % (0° - 180°) of the cycle (P < 0.05).

Conclusion:Positioning the cranks at 97% to 100% of the athletes’ arm length improved handcycling economy at 70% POPeak as, potentially, the musculature surrounding the joints of the upper limb were in a more favourable position to produce force economically.

0195-9131
2265-2273
Stone, Benjamin
a1ab8971-003b-4a1e-b01c-73355d1bb807
Mason, Barry S.
79692bb5-b2d3-4ab3-a684-5cd222fda111
Warner, Martin B.
f4dce73d-fb87-4f71-a3f0-078123aa040c
Goosey-Tolfrey, Vicky L.
047de762-5613-4c5b-96bf-28e521b8f6aa
Stone, Benjamin
a1ab8971-003b-4a1e-b01c-73355d1bb807
Mason, Barry S.
79692bb5-b2d3-4ab3-a684-5cd222fda111
Warner, Martin B.
f4dce73d-fb87-4f71-a3f0-078123aa040c
Goosey-Tolfrey, Vicky L.
047de762-5613-4c5b-96bf-28e521b8f6aa

Stone, Benjamin, Mason, Barry S., Warner, Martin B. and Goosey-Tolfrey, Vicky L. (2019) Horizontal crank position affects economy and upper limb kinematics of recumbent handcyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 51 (11), 2265-2273. (doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000002062).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Purpose: To determine the effects of horizontal crank position on economy and upper limb kinematics in recumbent handcycling.

Methods: Fifteen trained handcyclists performed trials at 50% and 70% of their peak aerobic power output (POPeak), determined during a maximal ramp test, in each horizontal crank position. Four horizontal crank positions, 94%, 97%, 100% and 103% of arm length, were investigated. Horizontal crank positions were defined as the distance between the acromion angle to the centre of the handgrip, while the crank arm was parallel to the floor and pointing away from the participant. Economy and upper limb kinematics were calculated during the final minute of each three-minute trial.

Results:Horizontal crank position significantly affected handcycling economy at 70% POPeak (P < 0.01) but not at 50% POPeak (P = 0.44). The 97% horizontal crank position (16.0 (1.5) mL·min-1·W-1) was significantly more economical than the 94% (16.7 (1.9) mL·min-1·W-1) (P = 0.04) and 103% (16.6 (1.7) mL·min-1·W-1) (P < 0.01) positions. The 100 % horizontal crank position (16.2 (1.7) mL·min-1·W-1) was significantly more economical than the 103% position (P <0.01). Statistical parametric mapping indicated that an increase in horizontal crank position, from 94% to 103%, caused a significant increase in elbow extension, shoulder flexion, adduction, internal rotation, scapular internal rotation, wrist flexion, clavicle depression and clavicle protraction between 0 – 50 % (0° - 180°) of the cycle (P < 0.05).

Conclusion:Positioning the cranks at 97% to 100% of the athletes’ arm length improved handcycling economy at 70% POPeak as, potentially, the musculature surrounding the joints of the upper limb were in a more favourable position to produce force economically.

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Horizontal crank position affects economy and upper limb kinematics of recumbent handcyclists - Accepted Manuscript
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 3 June 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 7 June 2019
Published date: November 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 431907
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/431907
ISSN: 0195-9131
PURE UUID: 30a5b432-f6b8-49f9-aeef-18eff3f1925d
ORCID for Martin B. Warner: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-1483-0561

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Date deposited: 21 Jun 2019 16:30
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 17:03

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Contributors

Author: Benjamin Stone
Author: Barry S. Mason
Author: Vicky L. Goosey-Tolfrey

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