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Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems

Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems
Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems
In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general—and plankton in particular—in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and composition of plankton, provide data necessary to constrain and improve ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and forecast changes in marine ecosystems in light of climate change. In this paper we begin by providing the motivation for plankton observations, quantification and diversity qualification on a global scale. We then expand on the state-of-the-art, detailing a variety of relevant and (mostly) mature technologies and measurements, including bulk measurements of plankton, pigment composition, uses of genomic, optical and acoustical methods as well as analysis using particle counters, flow cytometers and quantitative imaging devices. We follow by highlighting the requirements necessary for a plankton observing system, the approach to achieve it and associated challenges. We conclude with ranked action-item recommendations for the next 10 years to move toward our vision of a holistic ocean-wide plankton observing system. Particularly, we suggest to begin with a demonstration project on a GO-SHIP line and/or a long-term observation site and expand from there, ensuring that issues associated with methods, observation tools, data analysis, quality assessment and curation are addressed early in the implementation. Global coordination is key for the success of this vision and will bring new insights on processes associated with nutrient regeneration, ocean production, fisheries and carbon sequestration.
2296-7745
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Boss, Emmanuel
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Uitz, Julia
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Sosik, Heidi M.
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Picheral, Marc
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Pearlman, Jay
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Ohman, Mark D.
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Niehoff, Barbara
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Lopes, Rubens M.
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Kiko, Rainer
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Karp-boss, Lee
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Irisson, Jean-olivier
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Fennel, Katja
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Hauss, Helena
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Guidi, Lionel
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Gorsky, Gaby
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Gaube, Peter
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Dubelaar, George
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Cowen, Robert K.
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Carlotti, François
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Briseño-avena, Christian
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Berline, Léo
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Artigas, Luis Felipe
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Appeltans, Ward
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Lombard, Fabien
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Boss, Emmanuel
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Waite, Anya M.
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Uitz, Julia
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Stemmann, Lars
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Sosik, Heidi M.
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Schulz, Jan
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Romagnan, Jean-baptiste
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Picheral, Marc
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Pearlman, Jay
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Ohman, Mark D.
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Niehoff, Barbara
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Möller, Klas O.
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Miloslavich, Patricia
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Irisson, Jean-olivier
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Fennel, Katja
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Hauss, Helena
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Guidi, Lionel
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Gorsky, Gaby
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Giering, Sarah L. C.
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Gaube, Peter
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Gallager, Scott
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Dubelaar, George
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Cowen, Robert K.
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Carlotti, François
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Briseño-avena, Christian
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Berline, Léo
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Benoit-bird, Kelly
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Bax, Nicholas
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Batten, Sonia
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Ayata, Sakina Dorothée
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Artigas, Luis Felipe
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Appeltans, Ward
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Lombard, Fabien, Boss, Emmanuel, Waite, Anya M., Vogt, Meike, Uitz, Julia, Stemmann, Lars, Sosik, Heidi M., Schulz, Jan, Romagnan, Jean-baptiste, Picheral, Marc, Pearlman, Jay, Ohman, Mark D., Niehoff, Barbara, Möller, Klas O., Miloslavich, Patricia, Lara-lpez, Ana, Kudela, Raphael, Lopes, Rubens M., Kiko, Rainer, Karp-boss, Lee, Jaffe, Jules S., Iversen, Morten H., Irisson, Jean-olivier, Fennel, Katja, Hauss, Helena, Guidi, Lionel, Gorsky, Gaby, Giering, Sarah L. C., Gaube, Peter, Gallager, Scott, Dubelaar, George, Cowen, Robert K., Carlotti, François, Briseño-avena, Christian, Berline, Léo, Benoit-bird, Kelly, Bax, Nicholas, Batten, Sonia, Ayata, Sakina Dorothée, Artigas, Luis Felipe and Appeltans, Ward (2019) Globally consistent quantitative observations of planktonic ecosystems. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6. (doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00196).

Record type: Article

Abstract

In this paper we review the technologies available to make globally quantitative observations of particles in general—and plankton in particular—in the world oceans, and for sizes varying from sub-microns to centimeters. Some of these technologies have been available for years while others have only recently emerged. Use of these technologies is critical to improve understanding of the processes that control abundances, distributions and composition of plankton, provide data necessary to constrain and improve ecosystem and biogeochemical models, and forecast changes in marine ecosystems in light of climate change. In this paper we begin by providing the motivation for plankton observations, quantification and diversity qualification on a global scale. We then expand on the state-of-the-art, detailing a variety of relevant and (mostly) mature technologies and measurements, including bulk measurements of plankton, pigment composition, uses of genomic, optical and acoustical methods as well as analysis using particle counters, flow cytometers and quantitative imaging devices. We follow by highlighting the requirements necessary for a plankton observing system, the approach to achieve it and associated challenges. We conclude with ranked action-item recommendations for the next 10 years to move toward our vision of a holistic ocean-wide plankton observing system. Particularly, we suggest to begin with a demonstration project on a GO-SHIP line and/or a long-term observation site and expand from there, ensuring that issues associated with methods, observation tools, data analysis, quality assessment and curation are addressed early in the implementation. Global coordination is key for the success of this vision and will bring new insights on processes associated with nutrient regeneration, ocean production, fisheries and carbon sequestration.

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fmars-06-00196 - Version of Record
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Accepted/In Press date: 28 March 2019
Published date: 25 April 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 431991
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/431991
ISSN: 2296-7745
PURE UUID: 7cb90633-cde6-43d3-9339-b4d3daa6e5c2

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Date deposited: 26 Jun 2019 16:30
Last modified: 02 Dec 2019 17:35

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Contributors

Author: Fabien Lombard
Author: Emmanuel Boss
Author: Anya M. Waite
Author: Meike Vogt
Author: Julia Uitz
Author: Lars Stemmann
Author: Heidi M. Sosik
Author: Jan Schulz
Author: Jean-baptiste Romagnan
Author: Marc Picheral
Author: Jay Pearlman
Author: Mark D. Ohman
Author: Barbara Niehoff
Author: Klas O. Möller
Author: Patricia Miloslavich
Author: Ana Lara-lpez
Author: Raphael Kudela
Author: Rubens M. Lopes
Author: Rainer Kiko
Author: Lee Karp-boss
Author: Jules S. Jaffe
Author: Morten H. Iversen
Author: Jean-olivier Irisson
Author: Katja Fennel
Author: Helena Hauss
Author: Lionel Guidi
Author: Gaby Gorsky
Author: Sarah L. C. Giering
Author: Peter Gaube
Author: Scott Gallager
Author: George Dubelaar
Author: Robert K. Cowen
Author: François Carlotti
Author: Christian Briseño-avena
Author: Léo Berline
Author: Kelly Benoit-bird
Author: Nicholas Bax
Author: Sonia Batten
Author: Sakina Dorothée Ayata
Author: Luis Felipe Artigas
Author: Ward Appeltans

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