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Molecular mechanisms of microglial motility: changes in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease

Molecular mechanisms of microglial motility: changes in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease
Molecular mechanisms of microglial motility: changes in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease
Microglia are the tissue-resident immune cells of the central nervous system, where they constitute the first line of defense against any pathogens or injury. Microglia are highly motile cells and in order to carry out their function, they constantly undergo changes in their morphology to adapt to their environment. The microglial motility and morphological versatility are the result of a complex molecular machinery, mainly composed of mechanisms of organization of the actin cytoskeleton, coupled with a “sensory” system of membrane receptors that allow the cells to perceive changes in their microenvironment and modulate their responses. Evidence points to microglia as accountable for some of the changes observed in the brain during ageing, and microglia have a role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The present review describes in detail the main mechanisms driving microglial motility in physiological conditions, namely, the cytoskeletal actin dynamics, with emphasis in proteins highly expressed in microglia, and the role of chemotactic membrane proteins, such as the fractalkine and purinergic receptors. The review further delves into the changes occurring to the involved proteins and pathways specifically during ageing and in Alzheimer’s disease, analyzing how these changes might participate in the development of this disease.
Microglia, Motility, Morphology, Ageing, alzheimer’s disease (AD)
2073-4409
Franco-Bocanegra, Diana, Karina
ad8042ca-0800-495e-a32c-1bdca88aacaa
McAuley, Ciaran
39aecc0b-2c2e-48fb-ac83-ecae54d7d626
Nicoll, James
88c0685f-000e-4eb7-8f72-f36b4985e8ed
Boche, Delphine
bdcca10e-6302-4dd0-919f-67218f7e0d61
Franco-Bocanegra, Diana, Karina
ad8042ca-0800-495e-a32c-1bdca88aacaa
McAuley, Ciaran
39aecc0b-2c2e-48fb-ac83-ecae54d7d626
Nicoll, James
88c0685f-000e-4eb7-8f72-f36b4985e8ed
Boche, Delphine
bdcca10e-6302-4dd0-919f-67218f7e0d61

Franco-Bocanegra, Diana, Karina, McAuley, Ciaran, Nicoll, James and Boche, Delphine (2019) Molecular mechanisms of microglial motility: changes in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. Cells, 8 (6). (doi:10.3390/cells8060639).

Record type: Review

Abstract

Microglia are the tissue-resident immune cells of the central nervous system, where they constitute the first line of defense against any pathogens or injury. Microglia are highly motile cells and in order to carry out their function, they constantly undergo changes in their morphology to adapt to their environment. The microglial motility and morphological versatility are the result of a complex molecular machinery, mainly composed of mechanisms of organization of the actin cytoskeleton, coupled with a “sensory” system of membrane receptors that allow the cells to perceive changes in their microenvironment and modulate their responses. Evidence points to microglia as accountable for some of the changes observed in the brain during ageing, and microglia have a role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The present review describes in detail the main mechanisms driving microglial motility in physiological conditions, namely, the cytoskeletal actin dynamics, with emphasis in proteins highly expressed in microglia, and the role of chemotactic membrane proteins, such as the fractalkine and purinergic receptors. The review further delves into the changes occurring to the involved proteins and pathways specifically during ageing and in Alzheimer’s disease, analyzing how these changes might participate in the development of this disease.

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Accepted/In Press date: 24 June 2019
Published date: 25 June 2019
Keywords: Microglia, Motility, Morphology, Ageing, alzheimer’s disease (AD)

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 432109
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/432109
ISSN: 2073-4409
PURE UUID: 2a4e2924-24b7-4355-a567-725cb8bcec06
ORCID for James Nicoll: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9444-7246
ORCID for Delphine Boche: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-5884-130X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 02 Jul 2019 16:30
Last modified: 22 Aug 2019 00:35

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Contributors

Author: Diana, Karina Franco-Bocanegra
Author: Ciaran McAuley
Author: James Nicoll ORCID iD
Author: Delphine Boche ORCID iD

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