Winwood, K., Zioupos, P., Currey, J.D., Cotton, J.R. and Taylor, M.
Strain patterns during tensile, compressive, and shear fatigue of human cortical bone and implications for bone biomechanics
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 79A, (2), . (doi:10.1002/jbm.a.30796).
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It is a common theme in basic bone biomechanics
and in biomechanical applications that much of
the behavior can be determined and is dictated by the
level of strain, whether this pertains to bone physiology,
bone remodeling, osseoinduction, osseointegration, or the
development of damage. The development of damage,
demonstrated by stiffness loss measurements, has already
been reported in detail in the literature. However, the systematic
study of the development of ‘‘plastic’’ (residual)
strains, which are associated with the inelastic mechanical
behavior of bone tissue, has generally been overlooked.
The present study compares the rates at which the elastic
(ea) and plastic components (ep) of strain developed during
tensile, compressive, and shear fatigue in human cortical
bone of six individuals aged between 53 and 79 years.
The overall hypothesis of this investigation is that there is
a common underlying factor in the damage-related behavior
of bone, which may allow us to link together the various
aspects of the damage related behavior of bone. The
rate of development of plastic strain (Dep/DN) and the
rate of growth in elastic strain amplitude (Dea/DN) are
described as a function of the stress (r), and/or stress
normalized by the modulus of elasticity (r/E). The implications
of our findings are discussed with respect to simple
models/mechanisms, which may underlie the observed
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