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Outburst floods in China: A review

Outburst floods in China: A review
Outburst floods in China: A review
Outburst floods can have disastrous impacts on people, and are an important driving force in landscape change and have been studied widely on Earth. In China, although outburst floods have occurred frequently, there has been relatively little systematic investigation of the controlling factor. Here, we review outburst floods in China in terms of the characteristics, distribution, causes of dams and outburst floods. In terms of natural dams, landslides accounted for the majority (287 cases), followed by moraine dams (33 cases), which are mainly found on and around the Tibetan Plateau, and although other types (such as glacier and volcanic dams) were historically rare, many examples may be preserved in the geological record. In addition, there have been thousands of outburst floods from artificial-constructed dams, the majority of which were from small earth dams. The largest reliably recorded peak discharge for an outburst flood was 1.24 × 105 m3/s, which occurred in Yigong, Tibet. The peak discharge of the 1975 Banqiao collapse was 7.9 × 104 m3/s; the largest outburst flood of a man-made dam. Our recent investigations on the Yarlung Tsangpo in Southeast Tibet have identified gravel deposits that probably record megafloods and offer great potential for paleoflood analysis.
Outburst floods; Natural dams; Artificial dams; Tibetan Plateau; Gravel bars
0012-8252
Liu, Weiming
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Carling, Paul
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Hu, Kaiheng
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Wang, Hao
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Zhou, Zhen
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Zhou, Liqin
1c703a93-4ff6-4bf8-a4d3-6466446cf42f
Liu, Dingzhu
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Lai, Zhongping
56f19b0c-49d3-43fe-b620-167be1840f4e
Zhang, Xinbao
adb29874-6ea1-4f20-a5e9-992dbb82a24c
Liu, Weiming
12070153-c43d-4358-b056-1eb21e6d6e89
Carling, Paul
8d252dd9-3c88-4803-81cc-c2ec4c6fa687
Hu, Kaiheng
c4d74c24-947c-4aa4-be4e-a93d6c0381b5
Wang, Hao
d58a412a-4e41-4d3a-950d-e3e7f2b6898c
Zhou, Zhen
a0076ac6-1bf3-4259-b5ea-150c3d5fa845
Zhou, Liqin
1c703a93-4ff6-4bf8-a4d3-6466446cf42f
Liu, Dingzhu
3e85c90b-1f7d-4eea-b66d-f72dc9ec6d20
Lai, Zhongping
56f19b0c-49d3-43fe-b620-167be1840f4e
Zhang, Xinbao
adb29874-6ea1-4f20-a5e9-992dbb82a24c

Liu, Weiming, Carling, Paul, Hu, Kaiheng, Wang, Hao, Zhou, Zhen, Zhou, Liqin, Liu, Dingzhu, Lai, Zhongping and Zhang, Xinbao (2019) Outburst floods in China: A review. Earth-Science Reviews, 197, [102895]. (doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2019.102895).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Outburst floods can have disastrous impacts on people, and are an important driving force in landscape change and have been studied widely on Earth. In China, although outburst floods have occurred frequently, there has been relatively little systematic investigation of the controlling factor. Here, we review outburst floods in China in terms of the characteristics, distribution, causes of dams and outburst floods. In terms of natural dams, landslides accounted for the majority (287 cases), followed by moraine dams (33 cases), which are mainly found on and around the Tibetan Plateau, and although other types (such as glacier and volcanic dams) were historically rare, many examples may be preserved in the geological record. In addition, there have been thousands of outburst floods from artificial-constructed dams, the majority of which were from small earth dams. The largest reliably recorded peak discharge for an outburst flood was 1.24 × 105 m3/s, which occurred in Yigong, Tibet. The peak discharge of the 1975 Banqiao collapse was 7.9 × 104 m3/s; the largest outburst flood of a man-made dam. Our recent investigations on the Yarlung Tsangpo in Southeast Tibet have identified gravel deposits that probably record megafloods and offer great potential for paleoflood analysis.

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Chinese outburst floods-ESR-6.23 - accept (003) - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 3 July 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 11 July 2019
Published date: October 2019
Keywords: Outburst floods; Natural dams; Artificial dams; Tibetan Plateau; Gravel bars

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 432635
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/432635
ISSN: 0012-8252
PURE UUID: d01cee85-58ab-485c-b974-4ec8a50830a4

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Date deposited: 22 Jul 2019 16:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 05:42

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Contributors

Author: Weiming Liu
Author: Paul Carling
Author: Kaiheng Hu
Author: Hao Wang
Author: Zhen Zhou
Author: Liqin Zhou
Author: Dingzhu Liu
Author: Zhongping Lai
Author: Xinbao Zhang

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