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On the future of Argo: A global, full-depth, multi-disciplinary array

On the future of Argo: A global, full-depth, multi-disciplinary array
On the future of Argo: A global, full-depth, multi-disciplinary array
The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. The successful installation of the Argo array and its innovative data management system arose opportunistically from the combination of great scientific need and technological innovation. Through the data system, Argo provides fundamental physical observations with broad societally-valuable applications, built on the cost-efficient and robust technologies of autonomous profiling floats. Following recent advances in platform and sensor technologies, even greater opportunity exists now than 20 years ago to (i) improve Argo’s global coverage and value beyond the original design, (ii) extend Argo to span the full ocean depth, (iii) add biogeochemical sensors for improved understanding of oceanic cycles of carbon, nutrients, and ecosystems, and (iv) consider experimental sensors that might be included in the future, for example to document the spatial and temporal patterns of ocean mixing. For Core Argo and each of these enhancements, the past, present, and future progression along a path from experimental deployments to regional pilot arrays to global implementation is described. The objective is to create a fully global, top-to-bottom, dynamically complete, and multidisciplinary Argo Program that will integrate seamlessly with satellite and with other in situ elements of the Global Ocean Observing System (Legler et al., 2015). The integrated system will deliver operational reanalysis and forecasting capability, and assessment of the state and variability of the climate system with respect to physical, biogeochemical, and ecosystems parameters. It will enable basic research of unprecedented breadth and magnitude, and a wealth of ocean-education and outreach opportunities.
2296-7745
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Roemmich, Dean, Alford, Matthew H., Claustre, Hervé, Johnson, Kenneth, King, Brian, Moum, James, Oke, Peter, Owens, W. Brechner, Pouliquen, Sylvie, Purkey, Sarah, Scanderbeg, Megan, Suga, Toshio, Wijffels, Susan, Zilberman, Nathalie, Bakker, Dorothee, Baringer, Molly, Belbeoch, Mathieu, Bittig, Henry C., Boss, Emmanuel, Calil, Paulo, Carse, Fiona, Carval, Thierry, Chai, Fei, Conchubhair, Diarmuid Ó., D’ortenzio, Fabrizio, Dall’olmo, Giorgio, Desbruyeres, Damien, Fennel, Katja, Fer, Ilker, Ferrari, Raffaele, Forget, Gael, Freeland, Howard, Fujiki, Tetsuichi, Gehlen, Marion, Greenan, Blair, Hallberg, Robert, Hibiya, Toshiyuki, Hosoda, Shigeki, Jayne, Steven, Jochum, Markus, Johnson, Gregory C., Kang, Kiryong, Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas, Körtzinger, Arne, Traon, Pierre-yves Le, Lenn, Yueng-djern, Maze, Guillaume, Mork, Kjell Arne, Morris, Tamaryn, Nagai, Takeyoshi, Nash, Jonathan, Garabato, Alberto Naveira, Olsen, Are, Pattabhi, Rama Rao, Prakash, Satya, Riser, Stephen, Schmechtig, Catherine, Schmid, Claudia, Shroyer, Emily, Sterl, Andreas, Sutton, Philip, Talley, Lynne, Tanhua, Toste, Thierry, Virginie, Thomalla, Sandy, Toole, John, Troisi, Ariel, Trull, Thomas W., Turton, Jon, Velez-belchi, Pedro Joaquin, Walczowski, Waldemar, Wang, Haili, Wanninkhof, Rik, Waterhouse, Amy F., Waterman, Stephanie, Watson, Andrew, Wilson, Cara, Wong, Annie P. S., Xu, Jianping and Yasuda, Ichiro (2019) On the future of Argo: A global, full-depth, multi-disciplinary array. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6. (doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00439).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The Argo Program has been implemented and sustained for almost two decades, as a global array of about 4000 profiling floats. Argo provides continuous observations of ocean temperature and salinity versus pressure, from the sea surface to 2000 dbar. The successful installation of the Argo array and its innovative data management system arose opportunistically from the combination of great scientific need and technological innovation. Through the data system, Argo provides fundamental physical observations with broad societally-valuable applications, built on the cost-efficient and robust technologies of autonomous profiling floats. Following recent advances in platform and sensor technologies, even greater opportunity exists now than 20 years ago to (i) improve Argo’s global coverage and value beyond the original design, (ii) extend Argo to span the full ocean depth, (iii) add biogeochemical sensors for improved understanding of oceanic cycles of carbon, nutrients, and ecosystems, and (iv) consider experimental sensors that might be included in the future, for example to document the spatial and temporal patterns of ocean mixing. For Core Argo and each of these enhancements, the past, present, and future progression along a path from experimental deployments to regional pilot arrays to global implementation is described. The objective is to create a fully global, top-to-bottom, dynamically complete, and multidisciplinary Argo Program that will integrate seamlessly with satellite and with other in situ elements of the Global Ocean Observing System (Legler et al., 2015). The integrated system will deliver operational reanalysis and forecasting capability, and assessment of the state and variability of the climate system with respect to physical, biogeochemical, and ecosystems parameters. It will enable basic research of unprecedented breadth and magnitude, and a wealth of ocean-education and outreach opportunities.

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fmars-06-00439 - Version of Record
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Accepted/In Press date: 5 July 2019
Published date: 2 August 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 433521
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/433521
ISSN: 2296-7745
PURE UUID: 22818650-6567-4bf5-8a4b-9600ad1af726

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Date deposited: 27 Aug 2019 16:30
Last modified: 09 Dec 2019 17:32

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Contributors

Author: Dean Roemmich
Author: Matthew H. Alford
Author: Hervé Claustre
Author: Kenneth Johnson
Author: Brian King
Author: James Moum
Author: Peter Oke
Author: W. Brechner Owens
Author: Sylvie Pouliquen
Author: Sarah Purkey
Author: Megan Scanderbeg
Author: Toshio Suga
Author: Susan Wijffels
Author: Nathalie Zilberman
Author: Dorothee Bakker
Author: Molly Baringer
Author: Mathieu Belbeoch
Author: Henry C. Bittig
Author: Emmanuel Boss
Author: Paulo Calil
Author: Fiona Carse
Author: Thierry Carval
Author: Fei Chai
Author: Diarmuid Ó. Conchubhair
Author: Fabrizio D’ortenzio
Author: Giorgio Dall’olmo
Author: Damien Desbruyeres
Author: Katja Fennel
Author: Ilker Fer
Author: Raffaele Ferrari
Author: Gael Forget
Author: Howard Freeland
Author: Tetsuichi Fujiki
Author: Marion Gehlen
Author: Blair Greenan
Author: Robert Hallberg
Author: Toshiyuki Hibiya
Author: Shigeki Hosoda
Author: Steven Jayne
Author: Markus Jochum
Author: Gregory C. Johnson
Author: Kiryong Kang
Author: Nicolas Kolodziejczyk
Author: Arne Körtzinger
Author: Pierre-yves Le Traon
Author: Yueng-djern Lenn
Author: Guillaume Maze
Author: Kjell Arne Mork
Author: Tamaryn Morris
Author: Takeyoshi Nagai
Author: Jonathan Nash
Author: Are Olsen
Author: Rama Rao Pattabhi
Author: Satya Prakash
Author: Stephen Riser
Author: Catherine Schmechtig
Author: Claudia Schmid
Author: Emily Shroyer
Author: Andreas Sterl
Author: Philip Sutton
Author: Lynne Talley
Author: Toste Tanhua
Author: Virginie Thierry
Author: Sandy Thomalla
Author: John Toole
Author: Ariel Troisi
Author: Thomas W. Trull
Author: Jon Turton
Author: Pedro Joaquin Velez-belchi
Author: Waldemar Walczowski
Author: Haili Wang
Author: Rik Wanninkhof
Author: Amy F. Waterhouse
Author: Stephanie Waterman
Author: Andrew Watson
Author: Cara Wilson
Author: Annie P. S. Wong
Author: Jianping Xu
Author: Ichiro Yasuda

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