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Land raising as a solution to sea-level rise: an analysis of coastal flooding on an artificial island in the Maldives

Land raising as a solution to sea-level rise: an analysis of coastal flooding on an artificial island in the Maldives
Land raising as a solution to sea-level rise: an analysis of coastal flooding on an artificial island in the Maldives
The Maldives (land elevation approximately 1m above mean sea-level) is often associated with the threat of rising sea-levels. Land scarcity due to population pressure is also a major issue. In the late 1990s a new 1.9km^2 2m high artificial island, Hulhumalé was created for urban expansion, including an allowance for sea-level rise. This paper assesses flood exposure through an extreme water level scenario on Hulhumalé taking into account sea-level rise and analyses potential adaptation options to extend island life.

Results indicate that overtopping is likely to occur with 0.6±0.2m of SLR, with more severe, widespread flooding with 0.9±0.2m of sea-level rise. If the Paris Agreement goals are met, flooding is not anticipated this century, but under a non-mitigation scenario, flooding could occur by the 2090s. Building seawalls 0.5m, 1.0m and 1.5m high could delay flooding for 0.2m, 0.4m and 0.6m of sea-level rise, respectively.

Land raising has been successful in Hulhumalé in reducing flood risk simultaneous to addressing development needs. Whilst new land claim and raising can be cost-effective, raising developed land provides greater challenges, such as timeliness with respect to infrastructure design lives or financial costs. Thus the transferability and long-term benefits of land raising requires further consideration.

Brown, Sally
dd3c5852-78cc-435a-9846-4f3f540f2840
Wadey, Matthew
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Nicholls, Robert
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Shareef, Ali
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Khaleel, Zammath
0b06a7c3-28f0-4fc6-bb12-95b9d837f390
Hinkel, Jochen
9c7e8026-955c-42cd-9179-6113efbf1339
Lincke, Daniel
8b279c5b-dd6e-46f4-9c8d-adf83f6ea2cd
McCabe, Maurice V.
682a275f-fee6-4dd1-8a99-1eda586f365d
Brown, Sally
dd3c5852-78cc-435a-9846-4f3f540f2840
Wadey, Matthew
e712b840-f36b-41aa-ae28-d4d81de31831
Nicholls, Robert
4ce1e355-cc5d-4702-8124-820932c57076
Shareef, Ali
87d79c30-9d8c-458b-95fd-4a8ea13e56c5
Khaleel, Zammath
0b06a7c3-28f0-4fc6-bb12-95b9d837f390
Hinkel, Jochen
9c7e8026-955c-42cd-9179-6113efbf1339
Lincke, Daniel
8b279c5b-dd6e-46f4-9c8d-adf83f6ea2cd
McCabe, Maurice V.
682a275f-fee6-4dd1-8a99-1eda586f365d

Brown, Sally, Wadey, Matthew, Nicholls, Robert, Shareef, Ali, Khaleel, Zammath, Hinkel, Jochen, Lincke, Daniel and McCabe, Maurice V. (2020) Land raising as a solution to sea-level rise: an analysis of coastal flooding on an artificial island in the Maldives. Journal of Flood Risk Management, 13 (S1), [e12567]. (doi:10.1111/jfr3.12567).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The Maldives (land elevation approximately 1m above mean sea-level) is often associated with the threat of rising sea-levels. Land scarcity due to population pressure is also a major issue. In the late 1990s a new 1.9km^2 2m high artificial island, Hulhumalé was created for urban expansion, including an allowance for sea-level rise. This paper assesses flood exposure through an extreme water level scenario on Hulhumalé taking into account sea-level rise and analyses potential adaptation options to extend island life.

Results indicate that overtopping is likely to occur with 0.6±0.2m of SLR, with more severe, widespread flooding with 0.9±0.2m of sea-level rise. If the Paris Agreement goals are met, flooding is not anticipated this century, but under a non-mitigation scenario, flooding could occur by the 2090s. Building seawalls 0.5m, 1.0m and 1.5m high could delay flooding for 0.2m, 0.4m and 0.6m of sea-level rise, respectively.

Land raising has been successful in Hulhumalé in reducing flood risk simultaneous to addressing development needs. Whilst new land claim and raising can be cost-effective, raising developed land provides greater challenges, such as timeliness with respect to infrastructure design lives or financial costs. Thus the transferability and long-term benefits of land raising requires further consideration.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 26 August 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 9 September 2019
Published date: January 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 433764
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/433764
PURE UUID: b91c1d6f-6d9e-4aa8-90fc-4391dbc206c2
ORCID for Sally Brown: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1185-1962
ORCID for Robert Nicholls: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9715-1109

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 03 Sep 2019 16:30
Last modified: 11 Feb 2020 01:31

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