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On-site analysis of bacterial communities of the ultraoligotrophic South Pacific Gyre

On-site analysis of bacterial communities of the ultraoligotrophic South Pacific Gyre
On-site analysis of bacterial communities of the ultraoligotrophic South Pacific Gyre

The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) covers 10% of the ocean's surface and is often regarded as a marine biological desert. To gain an on-site overview of the remote, ultraoligotrophic microbial community of the SPG, we developed a novel onboard analysis pipeline, which combines next-generation sequencing with fluorescence in situ hybridization and automated cell enumeration. We tested the pipeline during the SO-245 "UltraPac" cruise from Chile to New Zealand and found that the overall microbial community of the SPG was highly similar to those of other oceanic gyres. The SPG was dominated by 20 major bacterial clades, including SAR11, SAR116, the AEGEAN-169 marine group, SAR86, Prochlorococcus, SAR324, SAR406, and SAR202. Most of the bacterial clades showed a strong vertical (20 m to 5,000 m), but only a weak longitudinal (80°W to 160°W), distribution pattern. Surprisingly, in the central gyre, Prochlorococcus, the dominant photosynthetic organism, had only low cellular abundances in the upper waters (20 to 80 m) and was more frequent around the 1% irradiance zone (100 to 150 m). Instead, the surface waters of the central gyre were dominated by the SAR11, SAR86, and SAR116 clades known to harbor light-driven proton pumps. The alphaproteobacterial AEGEAN-169 marine group was particularly abundant in the surface waters of the central gyre, indicating a potentially interesting adaptation to ultraoligotrophic waters and high solar irradiance. In the future, the newly developed community analysis pipeline will allow for on-site insights into a microbial community within 35 h of sampling, which will permit more targeted sampling efforts and hypothesis-driven research.IMPORTANCE The South Pacific Gyre, due to its vast size and remoteness, is one of the least-studied oceanic regions on earth. However, both remote sensing and in situ measurements indicated that the activity of its microbial community contributes significantly to global biogeochemical cycles. Presented here is an unparalleled investigation of the microbial community of the SPG from 20- to 5,000-m depths covering a geographic distance of ∼7,000 km. This insight was achieved through the development of a novel onboard analysis pipeline, which combines next-generation sequencing with fluorescence in situ hybridization and automated cell enumeration. The pipeline is well comparable to onshore systems based on the Illumina platforms and yields microbial community data in less than 35 h after sampling. Going forward, the ability to gain on-site knowledge of a remote microbial community will permit hypothesis-driven research, through the generation of novel scientific questions and subsequent additional targeted sampling efforts.

AEGEAN-169, biogeography, microbial community structure, Prochlorococcus, South Pacific Subtropical Gyre
0099-2240
1-14
Reintjes, Greta
79494769-3b21-4f85-bc20-05cb3cf33e59
Tegetmeyer, Halina E.
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Bürgisser, Miriam
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Orlić, Sandi
73008c4d-fd32-4f06-9014-0b956e5f2195
Tews, Ivo
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Zubkov, Mikhail
f90141b4-2587-4427-8581-529ab40f629b
Voß, Daniela
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Zielinski, Oliver
de367712-b159-4e1b-bab1-3009aeb5433a
Quast, Christian
0ae64ff6-3a64-4a1f-81e1-ab646abf0416
Glöckner, Frank Oliver
95f4d08c-613e-41ce-9f91-ddd94c808ad2
Amann, Rudolf
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Ferdelman, Timothy G.
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Fuchs, Bernhard M.
dfa49acc-93b0-4d04-87af-52ec11fa6b0e
Reintjes, Greta
79494769-3b21-4f85-bc20-05cb3cf33e59
Tegetmeyer, Halina E.
77ffc249-cda8-4ab5-9d2f-da208ede425a
Bürgisser, Miriam
2cc9e68e-f505-4f0d-99a8-93613a47e23b
Orlić, Sandi
73008c4d-fd32-4f06-9014-0b956e5f2195
Tews, Ivo
9117fc5e-d01c-4f8d-a734-5b14d3eee8dd
Zubkov, Mikhail
f90141b4-2587-4427-8581-529ab40f629b
Voß, Daniela
66ac86f2-ee43-409d-afbe-f8ce3dbb437c
Zielinski, Oliver
de367712-b159-4e1b-bab1-3009aeb5433a
Quast, Christian
0ae64ff6-3a64-4a1f-81e1-ab646abf0416
Glöckner, Frank Oliver
95f4d08c-613e-41ce-9f91-ddd94c808ad2
Amann, Rudolf
315b5cfc-deaa-4283-baf4-7fb655fe5730
Ferdelman, Timothy G.
608e7e72-65a9-4df1-9333-0dd5cfbe0cbe
Fuchs, Bernhard M.
dfa49acc-93b0-4d04-87af-52ec11fa6b0e

Reintjes, Greta, Tegetmeyer, Halina E., Bürgisser, Miriam, Orlić, Sandi, Tews, Ivo, Zubkov, Mikhail, Voß, Daniela, Zielinski, Oliver, Quast, Christian, Glöckner, Frank Oliver, Amann, Rudolf, Ferdelman, Timothy G. and Fuchs, Bernhard M. (2019) On-site analysis of bacterial communities of the ultraoligotrophic South Pacific Gyre. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 85 (14), 1-14. (doi:10.1128/AEM.00184-19).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The South Pacific Gyre (SPG) covers 10% of the ocean's surface and is often regarded as a marine biological desert. To gain an on-site overview of the remote, ultraoligotrophic microbial community of the SPG, we developed a novel onboard analysis pipeline, which combines next-generation sequencing with fluorescence in situ hybridization and automated cell enumeration. We tested the pipeline during the SO-245 "UltraPac" cruise from Chile to New Zealand and found that the overall microbial community of the SPG was highly similar to those of other oceanic gyres. The SPG was dominated by 20 major bacterial clades, including SAR11, SAR116, the AEGEAN-169 marine group, SAR86, Prochlorococcus, SAR324, SAR406, and SAR202. Most of the bacterial clades showed a strong vertical (20 m to 5,000 m), but only a weak longitudinal (80°W to 160°W), distribution pattern. Surprisingly, in the central gyre, Prochlorococcus, the dominant photosynthetic organism, had only low cellular abundances in the upper waters (20 to 80 m) and was more frequent around the 1% irradiance zone (100 to 150 m). Instead, the surface waters of the central gyre were dominated by the SAR11, SAR86, and SAR116 clades known to harbor light-driven proton pumps. The alphaproteobacterial AEGEAN-169 marine group was particularly abundant in the surface waters of the central gyre, indicating a potentially interesting adaptation to ultraoligotrophic waters and high solar irradiance. In the future, the newly developed community analysis pipeline will allow for on-site insights into a microbial community within 35 h of sampling, which will permit more targeted sampling efforts and hypothesis-driven research.IMPORTANCE The South Pacific Gyre, due to its vast size and remoteness, is one of the least-studied oceanic regions on earth. However, both remote sensing and in situ measurements indicated that the activity of its microbial community contributes significantly to global biogeochemical cycles. Presented here is an unparalleled investigation of the microbial community of the SPG from 20- to 5,000-m depths covering a geographic distance of ∼7,000 km. This insight was achieved through the development of a novel onboard analysis pipeline, which combines next-generation sequencing with fluorescence in situ hybridization and automated cell enumeration. The pipeline is well comparable to onshore systems based on the Illumina platforms and yields microbial community data in less than 35 h after sampling. Going forward, the ability to gain on-site knowledge of a remote microbial community will permit hypothesis-driven research, through the generation of novel scientific questions and subsequent additional targeted sampling efforts.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 4 May 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 10 May 2019
Published date: 1 July 2019
Keywords: AEGEAN-169, biogeography, microbial community structure, Prochlorococcus, South Pacific Subtropical Gyre

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 434175
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/434175
ISSN: 0099-2240
PURE UUID: 68549b4e-da79-4223-9f76-d09ef3d41b45
ORCID for Ivo Tews: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4704-1139

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 13 Sep 2019 16:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 01:58

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Contributors

Author: Greta Reintjes
Author: Halina E. Tegetmeyer
Author: Miriam Bürgisser
Author: Sandi Orlić
Author: Ivo Tews ORCID iD
Author: Mikhail Zubkov
Author: Daniela Voß
Author: Oliver Zielinski
Author: Christian Quast
Author: Frank Oliver Glöckner
Author: Rudolf Amann
Author: Timothy G. Ferdelman
Author: Bernhard M. Fuchs

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