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Requirements for a coastal hazards observing system

Requirements for a coastal hazards observing system
Requirements for a coastal hazards observing system
Coastal zones are highly dynamical systems affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic forcing factors that include sea level rise, extreme events, local oceanic and atmospheric processes, ground subsidence, etc. However, so far, they remain poorly monitored on a global scale. To better understand changes affecting world coastal zones and to provide crucial information to decision-makers involved in adaptation to and mitigation of environmental risks, coastal observations of various types need to be collected and analyzed. In this white paper, we first discuss the main forcing agents acting on coastal regions (e.g., sea level, winds, waves and currents, river runoff, sediment supply and transport, vertical land motions, land use) and the induced coastal response (e.g., shoreline position, estuaries morphology, land topography at the land–sea interface and coastal bathymetry). We identify a number of space-based observational needs that have to be addressed in the near future to understand coastal zone evolution. Among these, improved monitoring of coastal sea level by satellite altimetry techniques is recognized as high priority. Classical altimeter data in the coastal zone are adversely affected by land contamination with degraded range and geophysical corrections. However, recent progress in coastal altimetry data processing and multi-sensor data synergy, offers new perspective to measure sea level change very close to the coast. This issue is discussed in much detail in this paper, including the development of a global coastal sea-level and sea state climate record with mission consistent coastal processing and products dedicated to coastal regimes. Finally, we present a new promising technology based on the use of Signals of Opportunity (SoOp), i.e., communication satellite transmissions that are reutilized as illumination sources in a bistatic radar configuration, for measuring coastal sea level. Since SoOp technology requires only receiver technology to be placed in orbit, small satellite platforms could be used, enabling a constellation to achieve high spatio-temporal resolutions of sea level in coastal zones.
2296-7745
Benveniste, Jérôme
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Shah, Rashmi
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Almar, Rafael
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Frappart, Frédéric
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Garrison, James
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Gommenginger, Christine
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Han, Guoqi
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Høyer, Jacob L.
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Kourafalou, Villy
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Leuliette, Eric
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Li, Zhijin
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Loisel, Hubert
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Madsen, Kristine S.
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Marcos, Marta
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Melet, Angélique
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Meyssignac, Benoît
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Pascual, Ananda
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Passaro, Marcello
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Ribó, Serni
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Wilkin, John
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Woodworth, Philip
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Wöppelmann, Guy
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Benveniste, Jérôme
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Cazenave, Anny
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Shah, Rashmi
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Almar, Rafael
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Andersen, Ole
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Birol, Florence
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Bonnefond, Pascal
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Calafat, Francisco
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Cardellach, Estel
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Cipollini, Paolo
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Frappart, Frédéric
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Garrison, James
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Gommenginger, Christine
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Han, Guoqi
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Høyer, Jacob L.
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Kourafalou, Villy
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Leuliette, Eric
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Li, Zhijin
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Loisel, Hubert
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Madsen, Kristine S.
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Marcos, Marta
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Melet, Angélique
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Meyssignac, Benoît
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Pascual, Ananda
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Passaro, Marcello
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Ribó, Serni
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Scharroo, Remko
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Song, Y. Tony
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Speich, Sabrina
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Wilkin, John
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Woodworth, Philip
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Wöppelmann, Guy
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Benveniste, Jérôme, Cazenave, Anny, Vignudelli, Stefano, Fenoglio-marc, Luciana, Shah, Rashmi, Almar, Rafael, Andersen, Ole, Birol, Florence, Bonnefond, Pascal, Bouffard, Jérôme, Calafat, Francisco, Cardellach, Estel, Cipollini, Paolo, Le Cozannet, Gonéri, Dufau, Claire, Fernandes, Maria Joana, Frappart, Frédéric, Garrison, James, Gommenginger, Christine, Han, Guoqi, Høyer, Jacob L., Kourafalou, Villy, Leuliette, Eric, Li, Zhijin, Loisel, Hubert, Madsen, Kristine S., Marcos, Marta, Melet, Angélique, Meyssignac, Benoît, Pascual, Ananda, Passaro, Marcello, Ribó, Serni, Scharroo, Remko, Song, Y. Tony, Speich, Sabrina, Wilkin, John, Woodworth, Philip and Wöppelmann, Guy (2019) Requirements for a coastal hazards observing system. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6. (doi:10.3389/fmars.2019.00348).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Coastal zones are highly dynamical systems affected by a variety of natural and anthropogenic forcing factors that include sea level rise, extreme events, local oceanic and atmospheric processes, ground subsidence, etc. However, so far, they remain poorly monitored on a global scale. To better understand changes affecting world coastal zones and to provide crucial information to decision-makers involved in adaptation to and mitigation of environmental risks, coastal observations of various types need to be collected and analyzed. In this white paper, we first discuss the main forcing agents acting on coastal regions (e.g., sea level, winds, waves and currents, river runoff, sediment supply and transport, vertical land motions, land use) and the induced coastal response (e.g., shoreline position, estuaries morphology, land topography at the land–sea interface and coastal bathymetry). We identify a number of space-based observational needs that have to be addressed in the near future to understand coastal zone evolution. Among these, improved monitoring of coastal sea level by satellite altimetry techniques is recognized as high priority. Classical altimeter data in the coastal zone are adversely affected by land contamination with degraded range and geophysical corrections. However, recent progress in coastal altimetry data processing and multi-sensor data synergy, offers new perspective to measure sea level change very close to the coast. This issue is discussed in much detail in this paper, including the development of a global coastal sea-level and sea state climate record with mission consistent coastal processing and products dedicated to coastal regimes. Finally, we present a new promising technology based on the use of Signals of Opportunity (SoOp), i.e., communication satellite transmissions that are reutilized as illumination sources in a bistatic radar configuration, for measuring coastal sea level. Since SoOp technology requires only receiver technology to be placed in orbit, small satellite platforms could be used, enabling a constellation to achieve high spatio-temporal resolutions of sea level in coastal zones.

Text
fmars-06-00348 (1)
Available under License Creative Commons Attribution.
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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 6 June 2019
Published date: 17 July 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 434877
URI: https://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/434877
ISSN: 2296-7745
PURE UUID: be215aea-f5a0-494c-9bb9-cc53c836c7a3

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Date deposited: 15 Oct 2019 16:30
Last modified: 09 Dec 2019 17:31

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Contributors

Author: Jérôme Benveniste
Author: Anny Cazenave
Author: Stefano Vignudelli
Author: Luciana Fenoglio-marc
Author: Rashmi Shah
Author: Rafael Almar
Author: Ole Andersen
Author: Florence Birol
Author: Pascal Bonnefond
Author: Jérôme Bouffard
Author: Francisco Calafat
Author: Estel Cardellach
Author: Paolo Cipollini
Author: Gonéri Le Cozannet
Author: Claire Dufau
Author: Maria Joana Fernandes
Author: Frédéric Frappart
Author: James Garrison
Author: Christine Gommenginger
Author: Guoqi Han
Author: Jacob L. Høyer
Author: Villy Kourafalou
Author: Eric Leuliette
Author: Zhijin Li
Author: Hubert Loisel
Author: Kristine S. Madsen
Author: Marta Marcos
Author: Angélique Melet
Author: Benoît Meyssignac
Author: Ananda Pascual
Author: Marcello Passaro
Author: Serni Ribó
Author: Remko Scharroo
Author: Y. Tony Song
Author: Sabrina Speich
Author: John Wilkin
Author: Philip Woodworth
Author: Guy Wöppelmann

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