The University of Southampton
University of Southampton Institutional Repository

Risk of adverse outcomes following urinary tract infection in older people with renal impairment: retrospective cohort study using linked health record data

Risk of adverse outcomes following urinary tract infection in older people with renal impairment: retrospective cohort study using linked health record data
Risk of adverse outcomes following urinary tract infection in older people with renal impairment: retrospective cohort study using linked health record data
BackgroundFew studies have investigated the risk of adverse outcomes in older people with renal impairment presenting to primary care with a urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of adverse outcomes in patients aged ≥65 years presenting to primary care with a UTI, by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and empirical prescription of nitrofurantoin versus trimethoprim.Methods and findingsThis was a retrospective cohort study using linked health record data from 795,484 patients from 393 general practices in England, who were aged ≥65 years between 2010 and 2016. Patients were entered into the cohort if they presented with a UTI and had a creatinine measurement in the 24 months prior to presentation. We calculated an eGFR to estimate risk of adverse outcomes by renal function, and propensity-score matched patients with eGFRs <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 to estimate risk of adverse outcomes between those prescribed trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin. Outcomes were 14-day risk of reconsultation for urinary symptoms and same-day antibiotic prescription (proxy for treatment nonresponse), hospitalisation for UTI, sepsis, or acute kidney injury (AKI), and 28-day risk of death. Of 123,607 eligible patients with a UTI, we calculated an eGFR for 116,945 (95%). Median age was 76 (IQR, 70–83) years and 32,428 (28%) were male. Compared to an eGFR of >60 mL/minute/1.73 m2, patients with an eGFR of <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 had greater odds of hospitalisation for UTI (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.28, p = 0.028], for eGFRs of 45–59, to 1.68 [95% CI 1.01–2.82, p < 0.001] for eGFRs <15) and AKI (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.57 [95% CI 1.29–1.91, p < 0.001], for eGFRs of 45–59, to 4.53 [95% CI 2.52–8.17, p < 0.001] for eGFRs <15). Compared to an eGFR of >60 mL/minute/1.73 m2, patients with an eGFR <45 had significantly greater odds of hospitalisation for sepsis, and those with an eGFR <30 had significantly greater odds of death. Compared to trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin prescribing was associated with lower odds of hospitalisation for AKI (ORs ranged from 0.62 [95% CI 0.40–0.94, p = 0.025], for eGFRs of 45–59, to 0.45 [95% CI 0.25–0.81, p = 0.008] for eGFRs <30). Nitrofurantoin was not associated with greater odds of any adverse outcome. Our study lacked data on urine microbiology and antibiotic-related adverse events. Despite our design, residual confounding may still have affected some of our findings.ConclusionsOlder patients with renal impairment presenting to primary care with a UTI had an increased risk of UTI-related hospitalisation and death, suggesting a need for interventions that reduce the risk of these adverse outcomes. Nitrofurantoin prescribing was not associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with an eGFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 and could be used more widely in this population.
1549-1277
Ahmed, Haroon
880dac61-6070-4e31-9d09-ed7dbbf9a5cf
Farewell, Daniel
bb0b8839-4fd9-418d-976f-f732002b2f8d
Francis, Nicholas
9b610883-605c-4fee-871d-defaa86ccf8e
Paranjothy, Shantini
04acae3d-1dba-48ee-80e4-6f4b85cb8043
Butler, Christopher
8bf4cace-c34a-4b65-838f-29c2be91e434
Ahmed, Haroon
880dac61-6070-4e31-9d09-ed7dbbf9a5cf
Farewell, Daniel
bb0b8839-4fd9-418d-976f-f732002b2f8d
Francis, Nicholas
9b610883-605c-4fee-871d-defaa86ccf8e
Paranjothy, Shantini
04acae3d-1dba-48ee-80e4-6f4b85cb8043
Butler, Christopher
8bf4cace-c34a-4b65-838f-29c2be91e434

Ahmed, Haroon, Farewell, Daniel, Francis, Nicholas, Paranjothy, Shantini and Butler, Christopher (2018) Risk of adverse outcomes following urinary tract infection in older people with renal impairment: retrospective cohort study using linked health record data. PLoS Medicine, 15 (9), [e1002652]. (doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002652).

Record type: Article

Abstract

BackgroundFew studies have investigated the risk of adverse outcomes in older people with renal impairment presenting to primary care with a urinary tract infection (UTI). The aim of this study was to determine the risk of adverse outcomes in patients aged ≥65 years presenting to primary care with a UTI, by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and empirical prescription of nitrofurantoin versus trimethoprim.Methods and findingsThis was a retrospective cohort study using linked health record data from 795,484 patients from 393 general practices in England, who were aged ≥65 years between 2010 and 2016. Patients were entered into the cohort if they presented with a UTI and had a creatinine measurement in the 24 months prior to presentation. We calculated an eGFR to estimate risk of adverse outcomes by renal function, and propensity-score matched patients with eGFRs <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 to estimate risk of adverse outcomes between those prescribed trimethoprim and nitrofurantoin. Outcomes were 14-day risk of reconsultation for urinary symptoms and same-day antibiotic prescription (proxy for treatment nonresponse), hospitalisation for UTI, sepsis, or acute kidney injury (AKI), and 28-day risk of death. Of 123,607 eligible patients with a UTI, we calculated an eGFR for 116,945 (95%). Median age was 76 (IQR, 70–83) years and 32,428 (28%) were male. Compared to an eGFR of >60 mL/minute/1.73 m2, patients with an eGFR of <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 had greater odds of hospitalisation for UTI (adjusted odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 1.14 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01–1.28, p = 0.028], for eGFRs of 45–59, to 1.68 [95% CI 1.01–2.82, p < 0.001] for eGFRs <15) and AKI (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.57 [95% CI 1.29–1.91, p < 0.001], for eGFRs of 45–59, to 4.53 [95% CI 2.52–8.17, p < 0.001] for eGFRs <15). Compared to an eGFR of >60 mL/minute/1.73 m2, patients with an eGFR <45 had significantly greater odds of hospitalisation for sepsis, and those with an eGFR <30 had significantly greater odds of death. Compared to trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin prescribing was associated with lower odds of hospitalisation for AKI (ORs ranged from 0.62 [95% CI 0.40–0.94, p = 0.025], for eGFRs of 45–59, to 0.45 [95% CI 0.25–0.81, p = 0.008] for eGFRs <30). Nitrofurantoin was not associated with greater odds of any adverse outcome. Our study lacked data on urine microbiology and antibiotic-related adverse events. Despite our design, residual confounding may still have affected some of our findings.ConclusionsOlder patients with renal impairment presenting to primary care with a UTI had an increased risk of UTI-related hospitalisation and death, suggesting a need for interventions that reduce the risk of these adverse outcomes. Nitrofurantoin prescribing was not associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with an eGFR <60 mL/minute/1.73 m2 and could be used more widely in this population.

Full text not available from this repository.

More information

Accepted/In Press date: 13 August 2018
Published date: 10 September 2018

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 436100
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/436100
ISSN: 1549-1277
PURE UUID: 3be94ffc-6341-4537-9ceb-e797111953f8
ORCID for Nicholas Francis: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-8939-7312

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 27 Nov 2019 17:30
Last modified: 17 Dec 2019 01:20

Export record

Altmetrics

Download statistics

Downloads from ePrints over the past year. Other digital versions may also be available to download e.g. from the publisher's website.

View more statistics

Atom RSS 1.0 RSS 2.0

Contact ePrints Soton: eprints@soton.ac.uk

ePrints Soton supports OAI 2.0 with a base URL of http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/cgi/oai2

This repository has been built using EPrints software, developed at the University of Southampton, but available to everyone to use.

We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you continue without changing your settings, we will assume that you are happy to receive cookies on the University of Southampton website.

×