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Experimental characterization of a chip-level 3-D printed microjet liquid impingement cooler for high-performance systems

Experimental characterization of a chip-level 3-D printed microjet liquid impingement cooler for high-performance systems
Experimental characterization of a chip-level 3-D printed microjet liquid impingement cooler for high-performance systems
The chip-level bare die direct liquid impingement jet cooling is regarded as a highly efficient cooling solution for high-performance applications. Furthermore, it shows potential to be integrated inside the chip package. In previous studies, we demonstrated this cooling concept using a prototype fabricated with mechanical micromachining using polymers. With the improvement of fabrication resolution, additive manufacturing or 3-D printing technology enables the fabrication of low-cost polymer microjet coolers with complex internal 3-D geometries and allows easy customization of the cooler design. In this paper, a chip-level impingement jet cooler with a 4 × 4 jet array and 575-μm nozzle diameter is fabricated with highresolution stereolithography, and assembled directly on the top of the bare die. The modeling study shows that the pressure drop in the 3-D printed cooler is reduced by 24% compared to the micromachined (MM) cooler with the same nozzle dimensions thanks to an improved more complex internal geometry. The fabrication quality and tolerances of the printed cooler are evaluated using optical measurements, scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) inspection, and cross-sectional analysis, showing a measured average nozzle diameter of 575 μm compared to the designed nozzle diameter of 600 μm. Moreover, the 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations used in this paper are experimentally validated by chip temperature measurements. The achieved minimal thermal resistance of 3-D printed 4×4 cooler is 0.16 cm 2 ·K/W for a flow rate of 1000 mL/min. The benchmarking study shows the cooler size can be reduced by a factor of 6.5 by using the 3-D printing technology compared to the MM cooler.
2156-3950
1815-1824
Wei, Tiwei
e187e65e-7062-44db-8114-97286700ba38
Oprins, Herman
49107414-b3b6-448a-8d9d-6a4a9e1ca1d7
Cherman, Vladimir
5a8a95d2-1c2b-4387-b732-cc32879d4bac
Yang, Shoufeng
e0018adf-8123-4a54-b8dd-306c10ca48f1
De Wolf, Ingrid
995026a6-4763-4a76-b102-0a06e14acf6f
Beyne, Eric
23000d74-9598-4dbb-88a3-8556b938d67c
Baelmans, Martine
1057835c-65ac-4979-8912-9b0bca5c5b05
Wei, Tiwei
e187e65e-7062-44db-8114-97286700ba38
Oprins, Herman
49107414-b3b6-448a-8d9d-6a4a9e1ca1d7
Cherman, Vladimir
5a8a95d2-1c2b-4387-b732-cc32879d4bac
Yang, Shoufeng
e0018adf-8123-4a54-b8dd-306c10ca48f1
De Wolf, Ingrid
995026a6-4763-4a76-b102-0a06e14acf6f
Beyne, Eric
23000d74-9598-4dbb-88a3-8556b938d67c
Baelmans, Martine
1057835c-65ac-4979-8912-9b0bca5c5b05

Wei, Tiwei, Oprins, Herman, Cherman, Vladimir, Yang, Shoufeng, De Wolf, Ingrid, Beyne, Eric and Baelmans, Martine (2019) Experimental characterization of a chip-level 3-D printed microjet liquid impingement cooler for high-performance systems. IEEE Transactions on Components, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, 9 (9), 1815-1824. (doi:10.1109/TCPMT.2019.2905610).

Record type: Article

Abstract

The chip-level bare die direct liquid impingement jet cooling is regarded as a highly efficient cooling solution for high-performance applications. Furthermore, it shows potential to be integrated inside the chip package. In previous studies, we demonstrated this cooling concept using a prototype fabricated with mechanical micromachining using polymers. With the improvement of fabrication resolution, additive manufacturing or 3-D printing technology enables the fabrication of low-cost polymer microjet coolers with complex internal 3-D geometries and allows easy customization of the cooler design. In this paper, a chip-level impingement jet cooler with a 4 × 4 jet array and 575-μm nozzle diameter is fabricated with highresolution stereolithography, and assembled directly on the top of the bare die. The modeling study shows that the pressure drop in the 3-D printed cooler is reduced by 24% compared to the micromachined (MM) cooler with the same nozzle dimensions thanks to an improved more complex internal geometry. The fabrication quality and tolerances of the printed cooler are evaluated using optical measurements, scanning acoustic microscope (SAM) inspection, and cross-sectional analysis, showing a measured average nozzle diameter of 575 μm compared to the designed nozzle diameter of 600 μm. Moreover, the 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations used in this paper are experimentally validated by chip temperature measurements. The achieved minimal thermal resistance of 3-D printed 4×4 cooler is 0.16 cm 2 ·K/W for a flow rate of 1000 mL/min. The benchmarking study shows the cooler size can be reduced by a factor of 6.5 by using the 3-D printing technology compared to the MM cooler.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 18 March 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 18 March 2019
Published date: 1 September 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 436131
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/436131
ISSN: 2156-3950
PURE UUID: da474c50-ffde-481a-9dcb-ae8b6c5fe7bb
ORCID for Shoufeng Yang: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3888-3211

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 29 Nov 2019 17:30
Last modified: 09 Jan 2022 07:47

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Contributors

Author: Tiwei Wei
Author: Herman Oprins
Author: Vladimir Cherman
Author: Shoufeng Yang ORCID iD
Author: Ingrid De Wolf
Author: Eric Beyne
Author: Martine Baelmans

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