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Review—Beyond the highs and lows: A perspective on the future of dielectrics research for nanoelectronic devices

Review—Beyond the highs and lows: A perspective on the future of dielectrics research for nanoelectronic devices
Review—Beyond the highs and lows: A perspective on the future of dielectrics research for nanoelectronic devices
High-dielectric constant (high-k) gate oxides and low-dielectric constant (low-k) interlayer dielectrics (ILD) have dominated the nanoelectronic materials research scene over the past two decades, but they have recently reached a state of maturity and perhaps the limits of their scaling. Based on this, there is a need for a systematic review summarizing not only the historic research and achievements on high-k and low-k dielectrics, but also emerging device applications as well as an outlook of future challenges.We begin by first reviewing the factors that drove the emergence of low-k and high-k materials in nanoelectronics as ILD and gate dielectric materials, respectively, and the challenges and limits these materials ultimately approached in terms of permittivity scaling.We then illustrate that gate dielectric and ILD applications represent just a small fraction of the numerous dielectrics utilized in present day nanoelectronic products where permittivity scaling is now being increasingly demanded for materials such as dielectric spacers, trench isolation, and etch stopping layers. We conclude by examining the numerous new applications for dielectric materials that are emerging as the semiconductor industry transitions to novel patterning schemes, prepares for life post CMOS scaling, and explores ways to natively embed device functionality in the metal interconnect. For the former, we specifically examine the “colorful”requirements for the various enabling dielectric hard mask and spacer materials utilized in pitch division-multi-pattern processes and then discuss the role that selective area deposition of dielectrics and metals could play in reducing the complexity of such patterning processes. For the latter, we review the use of both high-k and low-k dielectrics in various metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures as Fermi level de-pinning layers, tunnel diodes, and back-end-of-line (BEOL) compatible capacitive and resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) elements.We further examine how dielectrics can hinder or aid new forms of computing such as quantum and neuromorphic in reaching their full potential. In conclusion, we find that while the field of dielectrics has a long history, it remains vibrant with numerous exciting new and old research vectors awaiting further exploration.© 2019 The Electrochemical Society.
2162-8769
N159-N185
Jenkins, Melanie
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Austin, Dustin
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Conley Jr, John
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Fan, Junqing
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De Groot, C.H.
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Jiang, Liudi
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Fan, Ye
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Ali, Rizwan
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Ghosh, Gargi
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Orlowski, Marius
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King, Sean W.
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Jenkins, Melanie
ccf51ecd-2d00-41fc-be29-a72c2b866aa1
Austin, Dustin
091059ce-8227-46f2-a665-42e9934fbdd3
Conley Jr, John
c11ac9db-1c4b-4d1b-a3e4-319f2fa17694
Fan, Junqing
0ca2fd5e-6520-47f8-9bfc-289c313a04cb
De Groot, C.H.
92cd2e02-fcc4-43da-8816-c86f966be90c
Jiang, Liudi
374f2414-51f0-418f-a316-e7db0d6dc4d1
Fan, Ye
2e7087db-45b2-4039-9268-241da9d1a481
Ali, Rizwan
dff77886-d2f3-4259-afde-bbbaf99a0ed9
Ghosh, Gargi
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Orlowski, Marius
a1fd29c5-7181-44c5-a3b0-116bb3959342
King, Sean W.
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Jenkins, Melanie, Austin, Dustin, Conley Jr, John, Fan, Junqing, De Groot, C.H., Jiang, Liudi, Fan, Ye, Ali, Rizwan, Ghosh, Gargi, Orlowski, Marius and King, Sean W. (2019) Review—Beyond the highs and lows: A perspective on the future of dielectrics research for nanoelectronic devices. ECS Journal of Solid State Science and Technology, 8 (11), N159-N185. (doi:10.1149/2.0161910jss).

Record type: Review

Abstract

High-dielectric constant (high-k) gate oxides and low-dielectric constant (low-k) interlayer dielectrics (ILD) have dominated the nanoelectronic materials research scene over the past two decades, but they have recently reached a state of maturity and perhaps the limits of their scaling. Based on this, there is a need for a systematic review summarizing not only the historic research and achievements on high-k and low-k dielectrics, but also emerging device applications as well as an outlook of future challenges.We begin by first reviewing the factors that drove the emergence of low-k and high-k materials in nanoelectronics as ILD and gate dielectric materials, respectively, and the challenges and limits these materials ultimately approached in terms of permittivity scaling.We then illustrate that gate dielectric and ILD applications represent just a small fraction of the numerous dielectrics utilized in present day nanoelectronic products where permittivity scaling is now being increasingly demanded for materials such as dielectric spacers, trench isolation, and etch stopping layers. We conclude by examining the numerous new applications for dielectric materials that are emerging as the semiconductor industry transitions to novel patterning schemes, prepares for life post CMOS scaling, and explores ways to natively embed device functionality in the metal interconnect. For the former, we specifically examine the “colorful”requirements for the various enabling dielectric hard mask and spacer materials utilized in pitch division-multi-pattern processes and then discuss the role that selective area deposition of dielectrics and metals could play in reducing the complexity of such patterning processes. For the latter, we review the use of both high-k and low-k dielectrics in various metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structures as Fermi level de-pinning layers, tunnel diodes, and back-end-of-line (BEOL) compatible capacitive and resistive switching random access memory (ReRAM) elements.We further examine how dielectrics can hinder or aid new forms of computing such as quantum and neuromorphic in reaching their full potential. In conclusion, we find that while the field of dielectrics has a long history, it remains vibrant with numerous exciting new and old research vectors awaiting further exploration.© 2019 The Electrochemical Society.

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Beyond the Highs and Lows A Perspective on the Future of Dielectrics Research for Nanoelectronic Devices - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 23 September 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 21 October 2019
Published date: 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 436283
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/436283
ISSN: 2162-8769
PURE UUID: d145837d-9ba7-4dce-9ada-7f26857c1fc7
ORCID for C.H. De Groot: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3850-7101
ORCID for Liudi Jiang: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3400-825X

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Date deposited: 05 Dec 2019 17:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 01:51

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