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What determines the downstream evolution of turbidity currents?

What determines the downstream evolution of turbidity currents?
What determines the downstream evolution of turbidity currents?
Seabed sediment flows called turbidity currents form some of the largest sediment accumulations, deepest canyons and longest channel systems on Earth. Only rivers transport comparable sediment volumes over such large areas; but there are far fewer measurements from turbidity currents, ensuring they are much more poorly understood. Turbidity currents differ fundamentally from rivers, as turbidity currents are driven by the sediment that they suspend. Fast turbidity currents can pick up sediment, and self-accelerate (ignite); whilst slow flows deposit sediment and dissipate. Self-acceleration cannot continue indefinitely, and flows might reach a near-uniform state (autosuspension). Here we show how turbidity currents evolve using the first detailed measurements from multiple locations along their pathway, which come from Monterey Canyon offshore California. All flows initially ignite. Typically, initially-faster flows then achieve near-uniform velocities (autosuspension), whilst slower flows dissipate. Fractional increases in initial velocity favour much longer runout, and a new model explains this bifurcating behaviour. However, the only flow during less-stormy summer months is anomalous as it self-accelerated, which is perhaps due to erosion of surficial-mud layer mid-canyon. Turbidity current evolution is therefore highly sensitive to both initial velocities and seabed character.
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Heerema, Catharina J.
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Talling, Peter J.
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Cartigny, Matthieu J.
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Paull, Charles K.
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Bailey, Lewis
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Simmons, Stephen M.
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Parsons, Daniel R.
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Clare, Michael A.
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Gwiazda, Roberto
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Lundsten, Eve
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Anderson, Krystle
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Maier, Katherine L.
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Xu, Jingping P.
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Sumner, Esther J.
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Rosenberger, Kurt
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Gales, Jenny
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Mcgann, Mary
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Carter, Lionel
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Pope, Edward
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Heerema, Catharina J.
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Talling, Peter J.
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Cartigny, Matthieu J.
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Paull, Charles K.
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Bailey, Lewis
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Simmons, Stephen M.
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Parsons, Daniel R.
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Clare, Michael A.
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Gwiazda, Roberto
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Lundsten, Eve
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Anderson, Krystle
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Maier, Katherine L.
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Xu, Jingping P.
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Sumner, Esther J.
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Rosenberger, Kurt
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Gales, Jenny
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Mcgann, Mary
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Carter, Lionel
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Pope, Edward
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Heerema, Catharina J., Talling, Peter J., Cartigny, Matthieu J., Paull, Charles K., Bailey, Lewis, Simmons, Stephen M., Parsons, Daniel R., Clare, Michael A., Gwiazda, Roberto, Lundsten, Eve, Anderson, Krystle, Maier, Katherine L., Xu, Jingping P., Sumner, Esther J., Rosenberger, Kurt, Gales, Jenny, Mcgann, Mary, Carter, Lionel and Pope, Edward (2020) What determines the downstream evolution of turbidity currents? Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 532, 1-11, [116023]. (doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2019.116023).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Seabed sediment flows called turbidity currents form some of the largest sediment accumulations, deepest canyons and longest channel systems on Earth. Only rivers transport comparable sediment volumes over such large areas; but there are far fewer measurements from turbidity currents, ensuring they are much more poorly understood. Turbidity currents differ fundamentally from rivers, as turbidity currents are driven by the sediment that they suspend. Fast turbidity currents can pick up sediment, and self-accelerate (ignite); whilst slow flows deposit sediment and dissipate. Self-acceleration cannot continue indefinitely, and flows might reach a near-uniform state (autosuspension). Here we show how turbidity currents evolve using the first detailed measurements from multiple locations along their pathway, which come from Monterey Canyon offshore California. All flows initially ignite. Typically, initially-faster flows then achieve near-uniform velocities (autosuspension), whilst slower flows dissipate. Fractional increases in initial velocity favour much longer runout, and a new model explains this bifurcating behaviour. However, the only flow during less-stormy summer months is anomalous as it self-accelerated, which is perhaps due to erosion of surficial-mud layer mid-canyon. Turbidity current evolution is therefore highly sensitive to both initial velocities and seabed character.

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Accepted/In Press date: 7 December 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 19 December 2019
Published date: 1 February 2020

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Local EPrints ID: 437094
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/437094
ISSN: 0012-821X
PURE UUID: 7f6375ba-df9a-46a8-b4ec-d148ebf2dc9c

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Date deposited: 16 Jan 2020 17:36
Last modified: 06 Oct 2020 19:16

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Contributors

Author: Catharina J. Heerema
Author: Peter J. Talling
Author: Matthieu J. Cartigny
Author: Charles K. Paull
Author: Lewis Bailey
Author: Stephen M. Simmons
Author: Daniel R. Parsons
Author: Michael A. Clare
Author: Roberto Gwiazda
Author: Eve Lundsten
Author: Krystle Anderson
Author: Katherine L. Maier
Author: Jingping P. Xu
Author: Kurt Rosenberger
Author: Jenny Gales
Author: Mary Mcgann
Author: Lionel Carter
Author: Edward Pope

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