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Si photonic waveguides with broken symmetries: applications to modulators and quantum simulations

Si photonic waveguides with broken symmetries: applications to modulators and quantum simulations
Si photonic waveguides with broken symmetries: applications to modulators and quantum simulations
Symmetries of waveguides determine fundamental properties of photons such as mode profiles, polarisation, and effective refractive indexes as well as practical properties affecting the propagation loss. Here, we review our recent progress on manipulating symmetries of silicon (Si) photonic waveguides. Starting from the strategic choice of Si-On-Insulator (SOI) wafer specifications, we established the process technologies to fabricate Si wire and slot waveguides with atomically-flat interfaces, defined by Si (111) planes. These waveguides have relatively low propagation loss ( ∼ 1 dB/cm), even though they were fabricated in a university line. By combining patterning and re-growth of deposited amorphous Si, we also fabricated an Si slot waveguide with a nanometer-scale vertical oxide layer, which is useful for optical modulators and various sensing applications. We also fabricated a horizontal slot waveguide using our manually bonded double-SOI substrate. The self-limited alkali-wet-etching allowed us to pattern the bottom SOI layer on top of the top SOI layer, by properly designing the mask to align along the mirror asymmetric Si (110) surface, allowing to access to top and bottom SOI layers individually through connected multiple-fin arrays. The patterning technique can be readily applicable to the other platform such as Si/LiNbO3 -hybrid wafers, and we discuss our design of electro-optic (EO) modulator towards zero-power consumptions. We also investigate photonic crystal waveguides with broken mirror symmetries. By manipulating the mismatch between adjacent photonic crystals across the waveguide made of line defects we could continuously control the band gap of the photonic crystals. Moreover, the phase profiles of modes exhibited photonic graphene and poly-acetylene shapes, made of optical vortices with optical orbital angular momentum (OAM). This shows that the most energetically favourable configuration of a photonic material under the triangular lattice is topologically equivalent to an organic material. We discuss the potential for the photonic organic chemistry and possible applications in quantum technologies.
0021-4922
Saito, Shinichi
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Tomita, Isao
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Sotto, Moise, Sala Henri
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Debnath, Kapil
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Byers, James
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Al-Attili, Abdelrahman
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Burt, Daniel
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Husain, Muhammad K
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Arimoto, Hideo
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Ibukuro, Kouta
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Charlton, Martin
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Thomson, David
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Zhang, Weiwei
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Chen, Bigeng
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Gardes, Frederic
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Reed, Graham
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Rutt, Harvey
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Saito, Shinichi
14a5d20b-055e-4f48-9dda-267e88bd3fdc
Tomita, Isao
e4a78ed2-f525-4fb0-9711-86e2b2dd5587
Sotto, Moise, Sala Henri
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Debnath, Kapil
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Byers, James
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Al-Attili, Abdelrahman
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Burt, Daniel
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Husain, Muhammad K
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Arimoto, Hideo
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Ibukuro, Kouta
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Charlton, Martin
fcf86ab0-8f34-411a-b576-4f684e51e274
Thomson, David
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Zhang, Weiwei
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Chen, Bigeng
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Gardes, Frederic
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Reed, Graham
ca08dd60-c072-4d7d-b254-75714d570139
Rutt, Harvey
e09fa327-0c01-467a-9898-4e7f0cd715fc

Saito, Shinichi, Tomita, Isao, Sotto, Moise, Sala Henri, Debnath, Kapil, Byers, James, Al-Attili, Abdelrahman, Burt, Daniel, Husain, Muhammad K, Arimoto, Hideo, Ibukuro, Kouta, Charlton, Martin, Thomson, David, Zhang, Weiwei, Chen, Bigeng, Gardes, Frederic, Reed, Graham and Rutt, Harvey (2020) Si photonic waveguides with broken symmetries: applications to modulators and quantum simulations. Japanese Journal of Applied Physics. (In Press)

Record type: Review

Abstract

Symmetries of waveguides determine fundamental properties of photons such as mode profiles, polarisation, and effective refractive indexes as well as practical properties affecting the propagation loss. Here, we review our recent progress on manipulating symmetries of silicon (Si) photonic waveguides. Starting from the strategic choice of Si-On-Insulator (SOI) wafer specifications, we established the process technologies to fabricate Si wire and slot waveguides with atomically-flat interfaces, defined by Si (111) planes. These waveguides have relatively low propagation loss ( ∼ 1 dB/cm), even though they were fabricated in a university line. By combining patterning and re-growth of deposited amorphous Si, we also fabricated an Si slot waveguide with a nanometer-scale vertical oxide layer, which is useful for optical modulators and various sensing applications. We also fabricated a horizontal slot waveguide using our manually bonded double-SOI substrate. The self-limited alkali-wet-etching allowed us to pattern the bottom SOI layer on top of the top SOI layer, by properly designing the mask to align along the mirror asymmetric Si (110) surface, allowing to access to top and bottom SOI layers individually through connected multiple-fin arrays. The patterning technique can be readily applicable to the other platform such as Si/LiNbO3 -hybrid wafers, and we discuss our design of electro-optic (EO) modulator towards zero-power consumptions. We also investigate photonic crystal waveguides with broken mirror symmetries. By manipulating the mismatch between adjacent photonic crystals across the waveguide made of line defects we could continuously control the band gap of the photonic crystals. Moreover, the phase profiles of modes exhibited photonic graphene and poly-acetylene shapes, made of optical vortices with optical orbital angular momentum (OAM). This shows that the most energetically favourable configuration of a photonic material under the triangular lattice is topologically equivalent to an organic material. We discuss the potential for the photonic organic chemistry and possible applications in quantum technologies.

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More information

Submitted date: 9 January 2020
Accepted/In Press date: 10 March 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 437157
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/437157
ISSN: 0021-4922
PURE UUID: 92b0fb23-1dfa-489e-9f20-596ceb308b53
ORCID for Shinichi Saito: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-1539-1182
ORCID for Kouta Ibukuro: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6546-8873
ORCID for Bigeng Chen: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4925-2308

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 20 Jan 2020 17:31
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 02:15

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Contributors

Author: Shinichi Saito ORCID iD
Author: Isao Tomita
Author: Moise, Sala Henri Sotto
Author: Kapil Debnath
Author: James Byers
Author: Abdelrahman Al-Attili
Author: Daniel Burt
Author: Muhammad K Husain
Author: Hideo Arimoto
Author: Kouta Ibukuro ORCID iD
Author: Martin Charlton
Author: David Thomson
Author: Weiwei Zhang
Author: Bigeng Chen ORCID iD
Author: Frederic Gardes
Author: Graham Reed
Author: Harvey Rutt

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