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Suitability of a linseed oil epoxy resin for composite applications

Suitability of a linseed oil epoxy resin for composite applications
Suitability of a linseed oil epoxy resin for composite applications
Vegetable oils are a great sustainable source for the production of resins. When these oils are epoxidized, their viscosities are greatly increased which prevents their use in the production of composites, especially via resin transfer moulding and infusion. This work studies aspects of the synthesis, curing and properties of cured epoxy resins derived from linseed oil. Two versions of the resin are used; the first comprising the epoxidized triglycerides of linseed oil (ELO), the second a low-viscosity version (TELO) obtained from the transesterification of ELO in methanol. The synthesis is initially carried out with heterogeneous catalysts such as TS-1 and Ti-SiO2. These catalysts show great activity towards epoxidation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), yet the epoxidation and transesterification of triglycerides was limited; a homogeneous synthesis is then used in larger batches.

Two curing approaches are used for ELO and TELO. The first consisted of blending them with conventional epoxy resin (DGEBA) cured by conventional and phenalkamide hardeners. The phenalkamide was chosen after a comparison of five different commercial phenalkamide and phenalkamine hardeners. The second curing procedure was done using a blend of ELO and TELO with a commercial UV-curable resin derived from linseed oil.

FT-IR and gel fraction tests show that all samples reached a high degree of curing. The use of TELO greatly reduces the viscosity of the blends but there are also reductions in elastic modulus, tensile strength and glass transition temperature. The long fatty acid chains in ELO and TELO have a plasticizing effect. The glycerol fragment connecting the fatty acid in ELO is essential for a high crosslinking density. The use of linseed oil derived epoxy resins in composite structures is limited. The conventional epoxy systems still have better properties yet to be achieved by bio-based ones.
University of Southampton
Benega, Marcos Antonio Gimenes
cc8b51e0-e147-4a41-9ba8-39fd13ed07fa
Benega, Marcos Antonio Gimenes
cc8b51e0-e147-4a41-9ba8-39fd13ed07fa
Blake, James
6afa420d-0936-4acc-861b-36885406c891

Benega, Marcos Antonio Gimenes (2019) Suitability of a linseed oil epoxy resin for composite applications. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis, 137pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Vegetable oils are a great sustainable source for the production of resins. When these oils are epoxidized, their viscosities are greatly increased which prevents their use in the production of composites, especially via resin transfer moulding and infusion. This work studies aspects of the synthesis, curing and properties of cured epoxy resins derived from linseed oil. Two versions of the resin are used; the first comprising the epoxidized triglycerides of linseed oil (ELO), the second a low-viscosity version (TELO) obtained from the transesterification of ELO in methanol. The synthesis is initially carried out with heterogeneous catalysts such as TS-1 and Ti-SiO2. These catalysts show great activity towards epoxidation of fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), yet the epoxidation and transesterification of triglycerides was limited; a homogeneous synthesis is then used in larger batches.

Two curing approaches are used for ELO and TELO. The first consisted of blending them with conventional epoxy resin (DGEBA) cured by conventional and phenalkamide hardeners. The phenalkamide was chosen after a comparison of five different commercial phenalkamide and phenalkamine hardeners. The second curing procedure was done using a blend of ELO and TELO with a commercial UV-curable resin derived from linseed oil.

FT-IR and gel fraction tests show that all samples reached a high degree of curing. The use of TELO greatly reduces the viscosity of the blends but there are also reductions in elastic modulus, tensile strength and glass transition temperature. The long fatty acid chains in ELO and TELO have a plasticizing effect. The glycerol fragment connecting the fatty acid in ELO is essential for a high crosslinking density. The use of linseed oil derived epoxy resins in composite structures is limited. The conventional epoxy systems still have better properties yet to be achieved by bio-based ones.

Text
Marcos Antonio Gimenes Benega PhD FSI 21 Oct 2019 - Version of Record
Restricted to Repository staff only until 30 October 2021.
Available under License University of Southampton Thesis Licence.

More information

Published date: April 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 437718
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/437718
PURE UUID: 98850d27-cb83-4c1e-9ad3-ebe9f269e11f
ORCID for Marcos Antonio Gimenes Benega: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-4954-7384
ORCID for James Blake: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5291-8233

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 12 Feb 2020 17:35
Last modified: 06 Jun 2020 00:27

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Contributors

Author: Marcos Antonio Gimenes Benega ORCID iD
Thesis advisor: James Blake ORCID iD

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