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The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts - IV. Discovery and polarimetry of a 12.1-second radio pulsar

The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts - IV. Discovery and polarimetry of a 12.1-second radio pulsar
The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts - IV. Discovery and polarimetry of a 12.1-second radio pulsar
We report the discovery of PSR J2251−3711, a radio pulsar with a spin period of 12.1 seconds, the second longest currently known. Its timing parameters imply a characteristic age of 15 Myr, a surface magnetic field of 1.3 × 1013 G and a spin-down luminosity of 2.9 × 1029 erg s−1. Its dispersion measure of 12.12(1) pc cm−3 leads to distance estimates of 0.5 and 1.3 kpc according to the NE2001 and YMW16 Galactic free electron density models, respectively. Some of its single pulses show an uninterrupted 180 degree sweep of the phase-resolved polarization position angle, with an S-shape reminiscent of the rotating vector model prediction. However, the fact that this sweep occurs at different phases from one pulse to another is remarkable and without straightforward explanation. Although PSR J2251−3711 lies in the region of the P˙ parameter space occupied by the X-ray Isolated Neutron Stars (XINS), there is no evidence for an X-ray counterpart in our Swift XRT observation; this places a 99%-confidence upper bound on its unabsorbed bolometric thermal luminosity of 1.1 × 1031 (d/1 kpc)2 ergs-1 for an assumed temperature of 85 eV, where d is the distance to the pulsar. Further observations are needed to determine whether it is a rotation-powered pulsar with a true age of at least several Myr, or a much younger object such as an XINS or a recently cooled magnetar. Extreme specimens like PSR J2251−3711 help bridge populations in the so-called neutron star zoo in an attempt to understand their origins and evolution.
Pulsars: general, Pulsars: individual: PSR J2251-3711, Stars: neutron
0035-8711
1165-1177
Morello, Vincent
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Keane, Evan F.
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Enoto, Teruaki
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Guillot, Sebastien
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Ho, Wynn C.G.
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Jameson, A.
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Kramer, M.
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Stappers, B.W.
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Bailes, M.
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Barr, E.D.
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Bhandari, S.
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Caleb, Manisha
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Flynn, C.M.L.
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Jankowski, F.
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Johnston, Simon
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van Straten, W.
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Arzoumanian, Zaven
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Bogdanov, Slavko
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Gendreau, Keith C.
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Malacaria, Christian
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Ray, Paul S.
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Remillard, Ronald A.
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Morello, Vincent
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Keane, Evan F.
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Enoto, Teruaki
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Guillot, Sebastien
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Ho, Wynn C.G.
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Jameson, A.
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Kramer, M.
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Stappers, B.W.
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Bailes, M.
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Barr, E.D.
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Bhandari, S.
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Caleb, Manisha
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Flynn, C.M.L.
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Jankowski, F.
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Johnston, Simon
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van Straten, W.
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Arzoumanian, Zaven
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Bogdanov, Slavko
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Gendreau, Keith C.
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Malacaria, Christian
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Ray, Paul S.
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Remillard, Ronald A.
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Morello, Vincent, Keane, Evan F., Enoto, Teruaki, Guillot, Sebastien, Ho, Wynn C.G., Jameson, A., Kramer, M., Stappers, B.W., Bailes, M., Barr, E.D., Bhandari, S., Caleb, Manisha, Flynn, C.M.L., Jankowski, F., Johnston, Simon, van Straten, W., Arzoumanian, Zaven, Bogdanov, Slavko, Gendreau, Keith C., Malacaria, Christian, Ray, Paul S. and Remillard, Ronald A. (2020) The SUrvey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts - IV. Discovery and polarimetry of a 12.1-second radio pulsar. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 493 (1), 1165-1177. (doi:10.1093/mnras/staa321).

Record type: Article

Abstract

We report the discovery of PSR J2251−3711, a radio pulsar with a spin period of 12.1 seconds, the second longest currently known. Its timing parameters imply a characteristic age of 15 Myr, a surface magnetic field of 1.3 × 1013 G and a spin-down luminosity of 2.9 × 1029 erg s−1. Its dispersion measure of 12.12(1) pc cm−3 leads to distance estimates of 0.5 and 1.3 kpc according to the NE2001 and YMW16 Galactic free electron density models, respectively. Some of its single pulses show an uninterrupted 180 degree sweep of the phase-resolved polarization position angle, with an S-shape reminiscent of the rotating vector model prediction. However, the fact that this sweep occurs at different phases from one pulse to another is remarkable and without straightforward explanation. Although PSR J2251−3711 lies in the region of the P˙ parameter space occupied by the X-ray Isolated Neutron Stars (XINS), there is no evidence for an X-ray counterpart in our Swift XRT observation; this places a 99%-confidence upper bound on its unabsorbed bolometric thermal luminosity of 1.1 × 1031 (d/1 kpc)2 ergs-1 for an assumed temperature of 85 eV, where d is the distance to the pulsar. Further observations are needed to determine whether it is a rotation-powered pulsar with a true age of at least several Myr, or a much younger object such as an XINS or a recently cooled magnetar. Extreme specimens like PSR J2251−3711 help bridge populations in the so-called neutron star zoo in an attempt to understand their origins and evolution.

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1910.04124 - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 27 January 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 5 February 2020
Published date: March 2020
Keywords: Pulsars: general, Pulsars: individual: PSR J2251-3711, Stars: neutron

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 437858
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/437858
ISSN: 0035-8711
PURE UUID: 15066c5a-a302-44f5-b3bb-f7685342ea29
ORCID for Wynn C.G. Ho: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6089-6836

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 20 Feb 2020 17:30
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:54

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Contributors

Author: Vincent Morello
Author: Evan F. Keane
Author: Teruaki Enoto
Author: Sebastien Guillot
Author: Wynn C.G. Ho ORCID iD
Author: A. Jameson
Author: M. Kramer
Author: B.W. Stappers
Author: M. Bailes
Author: E.D. Barr
Author: S. Bhandari
Author: Manisha Caleb
Author: C.M.L. Flynn
Author: F. Jankowski
Author: Simon Johnston
Author: W. van Straten
Author: Zaven Arzoumanian
Author: Slavko Bogdanov
Author: Keith C. Gendreau
Author: Christian Malacaria
Author: Paul S. Ray
Author: Ronald A. Remillard

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