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The strength of the genetic overlap between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis

The strength of the genetic overlap between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis
The strength of the genetic overlap between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Twin studies have established that these co-occurrences are in part due to shared genetic risks. However, the strength of these genetic overlaps and the potential heterogeneity accounted for by type of psychiatric symptoms, age, and methods of assessment remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review to fill this gap.

Methods: We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science until March 07, 2019. Genetic correlations (rg ) were used as effect size measures.

Results: A total of 31 independent studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimates showed that the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms were partly explained by shared genetic factors, with a pooled genetic correlation of 0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.60. The genetic correlations (rg ) between ADHD and externalizing (rg = .49 [0.37-0.61]), internalizing (rg = .50 [0.39-0.69]), and neurodevelopmental (rg = .56 [0.47-0.66]) symptoms were similar in magnitude. The genetic correlations in childhood and adulthood were rg = .53 (0.43-0.63) and rg = .51 (0.44-0.56), respectively. For methods of assessment, the genetic correlations were also similar in strength, self-reports rg = .52 (0.47-0.58), other informants rg = .55 (0.41-0.69), and combined raters rg = .50 (0.33-0.65).

Conclusions: These findings indicate that the co-occurrence of externalizing, internalizing, and neurodevelopmental disorder symptoms in individuals with ADHD symptoms in part is due to a shared genetic risk.

Keywords: ADHD; externalizing; genetic; internalizing; neurodevelopmental; overlap; twins
1469-7610
1173-1183
Anderson, Anneli
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Tuvblad, Catherine
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Chen, Qi
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Du Rietz, Ebba
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Cortese, Samuele
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Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
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Larsson, Henrik
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Anderson, Anneli
ed3b1116-dfe0-4242-a556-f2a5b4d08dd4
Tuvblad, Catherine
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Chen, Qi
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Du Rietz, Ebba
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Cortese, Samuele
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Kuja-Halkola, Ralf
ad5f6339-6463-400d-88b1-71f8468b3c90
Larsson, Henrik
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Anderson, Anneli, Tuvblad, Catherine, Chen, Qi, Du Rietz, Ebba, Cortese, Samuele, Kuja-Halkola, Ralf and Larsson, Henrik (2020) The strength of the genetic overlap between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 1173-1183. (doi:10.1111/jcpp.13233).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently co-occurs with other psychiatric disorders. Twin studies have established that these co-occurrences are in part due to shared genetic risks. However, the strength of these genetic overlaps and the potential heterogeneity accounted for by type of psychiatric symptoms, age, and methods of assessment remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review to fill this gap.

Methods: We searched PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and Web of Science until March 07, 2019. Genetic correlations (rg ) were used as effect size measures.

Results: A total of 31 independent studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimates showed that the associations between ADHD and other psychiatric symptoms were partly explained by shared genetic factors, with a pooled genetic correlation of 0.50, 95% confidence interval: 0.46-0.60. The genetic correlations (rg ) between ADHD and externalizing (rg = .49 [0.37-0.61]), internalizing (rg = .50 [0.39-0.69]), and neurodevelopmental (rg = .56 [0.47-0.66]) symptoms were similar in magnitude. The genetic correlations in childhood and adulthood were rg = .53 (0.43-0.63) and rg = .51 (0.44-0.56), respectively. For methods of assessment, the genetic correlations were also similar in strength, self-reports rg = .52 (0.47-0.58), other informants rg = .55 (0.41-0.69), and combined raters rg = .50 (0.33-0.65).

Conclusions: These findings indicate that the co-occurrence of externalizing, internalizing, and neurodevelopmental disorder symptoms in individuals with ADHD symptoms in part is due to a shared genetic risk.

Keywords: ADHD; externalizing; genetic; internalizing; neurodevelopmental; overlap; twins

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Genetic overlap between ADHD and psychiatric symptoms - Revised version 2020-01-15 - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 11 February 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 10 March 2020
Published date: 1 November 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 438004
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/438004
ISSN: 1469-7610
PURE UUID: 2d3d0202-2ee3-4ff0-bdec-f60bd1ce9834
ORCID for Samuele Cortese: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5877-8075

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Date deposited: 26 Feb 2020 17:30
Last modified: 28 Apr 2022 04:15

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Contributors

Author: Anneli Anderson
Author: Catherine Tuvblad
Author: Qi Chen
Author: Ebba Du Rietz
Author: Samuele Cortese ORCID iD
Author: Ralf Kuja-Halkola
Author: Henrik Larsson

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