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Fauna of the Kemp Caldera and its upper bathyal hydrothermal vents (South Sandwich Arc, Antarctica)

Fauna of the Kemp Caldera and its upper bathyal hydrothermal vents (South Sandwich Arc, Antarctica)
Fauna of the Kemp Caldera and its upper bathyal hydrothermal vents (South Sandwich Arc, Antarctica)
Faunal assemblages at hydrothermal vents associated with island-arc volcanism are less well known than those at vents on mid-ocean ridges and back-arc spreading centres. This study characterizes chemosynthetic biotopes at active hydrothermal vents discovered at the Kemp Caldera in the South Sandwich Arc. The caldera hosts sulfur and anhydrite vent chimneys in 1375–1487 m depth, which emit sulfide-rich fluids with temperatures up to 212°C, and the microbial community of water samples in the buoyant plume rising from the vents was dominated by sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria. A total of 12 macro- and megafaunal taxa depending on hydrothermal activity were collected in these biotopes, of which seven species were known from the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) vents and three species from vents outside the Southern Ocean. Faunal assemblages were dominated by large vesicomyid clams, actinostolid anemones, Sericosura sea spiders and lepetodrilid and cocculinid limpets, but several taxa abundant at nearby ESR hydrothermal vents were rare such as the stalked barnacle Neolepas scotiaensis. Multivariate analysis of fauna at Kemp Caldera and vents in neighbouring areas indicated that the Kemp Caldera is most similar to vent fields in the previously established Southern Ocean vent biogeographic province, showing that the species composition at island-arc hydrothermal vents can be distinct from nearby seafloor-spreading systems. δ13C and δ15N isotope values of megafaunal species analysed from the Kemp Caldera were similar to those of the same or related species at other vent fields, but none of the fauna sampled at Kemp Caldera had δ13C values, indicating nutritional dependence on Epsilonproteobacteria, unlike fauna at other island-arc hydrothermal vents.
2054-5703
Linse, Katrin
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Copley, Jonathan T.
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Connelly, Douglas P.
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Larter, Robert D.
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Pearce, David A.
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Polunin, Nick V. C.
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Rogers, Alex D.
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Chen, Chong
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Clarke, Andrew
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Glover, Adrian G.
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Graham, Alastair G. C.
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Huvenne, Veerle A. I.
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Marsh, Leigh
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Reid, William D. K.
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Roterman, C. Nicolai
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Sweeting, Christopher J.
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Zwirglmaier, Katrin
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Tyler, Paul A.
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Linse, Katrin
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Copley, Jonathan T.
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Connelly, Douglas P.
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Larter, Robert D.
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Pearce, David A.
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Polunin, Nick V. C.
c21f08b5-e288-41bd-9ed3-42fdd77ff688
Rogers, Alex D.
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Chen, Chong
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Clarke, Andrew
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Glover, Adrian G.
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Graham, Alastair G. C.
0043bd2f-103d-4131-8baf-96b6326f394f
Huvenne, Veerle A. I.
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Marsh, Leigh
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Reid, William D. K.
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Roterman, C. Nicolai
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Sweeting, Christopher J.
71971132-559e-49aa-837d-b003cbbc748a
Zwirglmaier, Katrin
bab5e123-33f1-4b50-8d94-a34d438a5826
Tyler, Paul A.
d1965388-38cc-4c1d-9217-d59dba4dd7f8

Linse, Katrin, Copley, Jonathan T., Connelly, Douglas P., Larter, Robert D., Pearce, David A., Polunin, Nick V. C., Rogers, Alex D., Chen, Chong, Clarke, Andrew, Glover, Adrian G., Graham, Alastair G. C., Huvenne, Veerle A. I., Marsh, Leigh, Reid, William D. K., Roterman, C. Nicolai, Sweeting, Christopher J., Zwirglmaier, Katrin and Tyler, Paul A. (2019) Fauna of the Kemp Caldera and its upper bathyal hydrothermal vents (South Sandwich Arc, Antarctica). Royal Society Open Science, 6 (11), [191501]. (doi:10.1098/rsos.191501).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Faunal assemblages at hydrothermal vents associated with island-arc volcanism are less well known than those at vents on mid-ocean ridges and back-arc spreading centres. This study characterizes chemosynthetic biotopes at active hydrothermal vents discovered at the Kemp Caldera in the South Sandwich Arc. The caldera hosts sulfur and anhydrite vent chimneys in 1375–1487 m depth, which emit sulfide-rich fluids with temperatures up to 212°C, and the microbial community of water samples in the buoyant plume rising from the vents was dominated by sulfur-oxidizing Gammaproteobacteria. A total of 12 macro- and megafaunal taxa depending on hydrothermal activity were collected in these biotopes, of which seven species were known from the East Scotia Ridge (ESR) vents and three species from vents outside the Southern Ocean. Faunal assemblages were dominated by large vesicomyid clams, actinostolid anemones, Sericosura sea spiders and lepetodrilid and cocculinid limpets, but several taxa abundant at nearby ESR hydrothermal vents were rare such as the stalked barnacle Neolepas scotiaensis. Multivariate analysis of fauna at Kemp Caldera and vents in neighbouring areas indicated that the Kemp Caldera is most similar to vent fields in the previously established Southern Ocean vent biogeographic province, showing that the species composition at island-arc hydrothermal vents can be distinct from nearby seafloor-spreading systems. δ13C and δ15N isotope values of megafaunal species analysed from the Kemp Caldera were similar to those of the same or related species at other vent fields, but none of the fauna sampled at Kemp Caldera had δ13C values, indicating nutritional dependence on Epsilonproteobacteria, unlike fauna at other island-arc hydrothermal vents.

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Linse et al rsos191501 - Version of Record
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Accepted/In Press date: 23 October 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 20 November 2019
Published date: November 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 438045
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/438045
ISSN: 2054-5703
PURE UUID: 8eae0780-00b0-442c-9388-38241c5f2423
ORCID for Jonathan T. Copley: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3333-4325
ORCID for Veerle A. I. Huvenne: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-7135-6360

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Date deposited: 26 Feb 2020 17:31
Last modified: 18 Feb 2021 16:44

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Contributors

Author: Katrin Linse
Author: Douglas P. Connelly
Author: Robert D. Larter
Author: David A. Pearce
Author: Nick V. C. Polunin
Author: Alex D. Rogers
Author: Chong Chen
Author: Andrew Clarke
Author: Adrian G. Glover
Author: Alastair G. C. Graham
Author: Veerle A. I. Huvenne ORCID iD
Author: Leigh Marsh
Author: William D. K. Reid
Author: C. Nicolai Roterman
Author: Christopher J. Sweeting
Author: Katrin Zwirglmaier
Author: Paul A. Tyler

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