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A meta-analysis of microcosm experiments shows that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in polar waters is insensitive to ocean acidification

A meta-analysis of microcosm experiments shows that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in polar waters is insensitive to ocean acidification
A meta-analysis of microcosm experiments shows that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in polar waters is insensitive to ocean acidification
Emissions of dimethylsulfide (DMS) from the polar oceans play a key role in atmospheric processes and climate. Therefore, it is important to increase our understanding of how DMS production in these regions may respond to climate change. The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA). However, our understanding of the polar DMS response is limited to two studies conducted in Arctic waters, where in both cases DMS concentrations decreased with increasing acidity. Here, we report on our findings from seven summertime shipboard microcosm experiments undertaken in a variety of locations in the Arctic Ocean and Southern Ocean. These experiments reveal no significant effects of short-term OA on the net production of DMS by planktonic communities. This is in contrast to similar experiments from temperate north-western European shelf waters where surface ocean communities responded to OA with significant increases in dissolved DMS concentrations. A meta-analysis of the findings from both temperate and polar waters (n=18 experiments) reveals clear regional differences in the DMS response to OA. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the differences in DMS response between temperate and polar waters reflect the natural variability in carbonate chemistry to which the respective communities of each region may already be adapted. If so, future temperate oceans could be more sensitive to OA, resulting in an increase in DMS emissions to the atmosphere, whilst perhaps surprisingly DMS emissions from the polar oceans may remain relatively unchanged. By demonstrating that DMS emissions from geographically distinct regions may vary in their response to OA, our results may facilitate a better understanding of Earth's future climate. Our study suggests that the way in which processes that generate DMS respond to OA may be regionally distinct, and this should be taken into account in predicting future DMS emissions and their influence on Earth's climate.
1726-4170
163-186
Hopkins, Frances E.
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Nightingale, Philip D.
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Stephens, John A.
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Moore, Christopher
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Richier, Sophie
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Cripps, Gemma L.
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Archer, Stephen D.
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Hopkins, Frances E.
d5999493-2a10-4284-8e1d-b0e1bf9aa579
Nightingale, Philip D.
4557daaa-1923-4964-b38b-f45f90d1cc28
Stephens, John A.
28d1ee07-2062-413b-b07b-6cb6c4f7a194
Moore, Christopher
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Richier, Sophie
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Cripps, Gemma L.
bb69f201-11cb-4b34-85b3-81720e0b6554
Archer, Stephen D.
d3c41722-5469-4420-b036-cde7e5550df7

Hopkins, Frances E., Nightingale, Philip D., Stephens, John A., Moore, Christopher, Richier, Sophie, Cripps, Gemma L. and Archer, Stephen D. (2020) A meta-analysis of microcosm experiments shows that dimethyl sulfide (DMS) production in polar waters is insensitive to ocean acidification. Biogeosciences, 17 (1), 163-186. (doi:10.5194/bg-17-163-2020).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Emissions of dimethylsulfide (DMS) from the polar oceans play a key role in atmospheric processes and climate. Therefore, it is important to increase our understanding of how DMS production in these regions may respond to climate change. The polar oceans are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification (OA). However, our understanding of the polar DMS response is limited to two studies conducted in Arctic waters, where in both cases DMS concentrations decreased with increasing acidity. Here, we report on our findings from seven summertime shipboard microcosm experiments undertaken in a variety of locations in the Arctic Ocean and Southern Ocean. These experiments reveal no significant effects of short-term OA on the net production of DMS by planktonic communities. This is in contrast to similar experiments from temperate north-western European shelf waters where surface ocean communities responded to OA with significant increases in dissolved DMS concentrations. A meta-analysis of the findings from both temperate and polar waters (n=18 experiments) reveals clear regional differences in the DMS response to OA. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that the differences in DMS response between temperate and polar waters reflect the natural variability in carbonate chemistry to which the respective communities of each region may already be adapted. If so, future temperate oceans could be more sensitive to OA, resulting in an increase in DMS emissions to the atmosphere, whilst perhaps surprisingly DMS emissions from the polar oceans may remain relatively unchanged. By demonstrating that DMS emissions from geographically distinct regions may vary in their response to OA, our results may facilitate a better understanding of Earth's future climate. Our study suggests that the way in which processes that generate DMS respond to OA may be regionally distinct, and this should be taken into account in predicting future DMS emissions and their influence on Earth's climate.

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Accepted/In Press date: 28 November 2019
Published date: 16 January 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 438047
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/438047
ISSN: 1726-4170
PURE UUID: 4293317e-d911-4feb-a31d-9ab9099a01ef
ORCID for Christopher Moore: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-9541-6046

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Date deposited: 26 Feb 2020 17:31
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:42

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Contributors

Author: Frances E. Hopkins
Author: Philip D. Nightingale
Author: John A. Stephens
Author: Sophie Richier
Author: Gemma L. Cripps
Author: Stephen D. Archer

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