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Long term rates of change in musculoskeletal aging and body composition: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study

Long term rates of change in musculoskeletal aging and body composition: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study
Long term rates of change in musculoskeletal aging and body composition: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study
Musculoskeletal disorders are common among older people. Preventive strategies require understanding of age-related changes in strength, function and body composition, including how they interrelate. We have described, and examined associations between, 9-year changes in these parameters among 2917 Health, Aging and Body Composition Study participants (aged 70-79 years). Appendicular lean mass (ALM), whole body fat mass and total hip BMD were ascertained using DXA; muscle strength by grip dynamometry; and muscle function by gait speed. For each characteristic annualised percentage changes were calculated; measures of conditional change (independent of baseline) were derived and their interrelationships were examined using Pearson correlations; proportion of variance at 9-year follow-up explained by baseline level was estimated; and mean trajectories in relation to age were estimated using linear mixed models. Analyses were stratified by sex. Median [lower quartile, upper quartile] annual percentage declines were grip strength (1.5 [0.0, 2.9]), gait speed (2.0 [0.6, 3.7]), ALM (0.7 [0.1, 1.4]), fat mass (0.4 [- 1.1, 1.9]) and hip BMD (0.5 [0.0, 1.1]). Declines were linear for ALM and accelerated over time for other characteristics. Most conditional change measures were positively correlated, most strongly between ALM, fat mass and hip BMD (r > 0.28). Proportion of variation at follow-up explained by baseline was lower for grip strength and gait speed (39-52%) than other characteristics (69-86%). Strength and function declined more rapidly, and were less correlated between baseline and follow-up, than measures of body composition. Therefore, broader intervention strategies to prevent loss of strength and function in later life are required as those targeting body composition alone may be insufficient.
Epidemiology, Frailty, Muscle, Osteoporosis, Sarcopenia
0171-967X
616-624
Westbury, Leo D.
5ed45df3-3df7-4bf9-bbad-07b63cd4b281
Syddall, Holly E.
a0181a93-8fc3-4998-a996-7963f0128328
Fuggle, Nicholas
9ab0c81a-ac67-41c4-8860-23e0fdb1a900
Dennison, Elaine M.
ee647287-edb4-4392-8361-e59fd505b1d1
Cauley, Jane A.
fbc60b0d-09fd-445d-83df-b61521bcf775
Shiroma, Eric J.
6ddbea5d-7eb6-4a28-b345-eb413a442607
Fielding, Roger A.
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Newman, Anne B.
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Cooper, Cyrus
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6
Westbury, Leo D.
5ed45df3-3df7-4bf9-bbad-07b63cd4b281
Syddall, Holly E.
a0181a93-8fc3-4998-a996-7963f0128328
Fuggle, Nicholas
9ab0c81a-ac67-41c4-8860-23e0fdb1a900
Dennison, Elaine M.
ee647287-edb4-4392-8361-e59fd505b1d1
Cauley, Jane A.
fbc60b0d-09fd-445d-83df-b61521bcf775
Shiroma, Eric J.
6ddbea5d-7eb6-4a28-b345-eb413a442607
Fielding, Roger A.
36b26592-ce59-4443-ab26-185919da78c0
Newman, Anne B.
c20887ec-62be-4736-b599-256e76ca00d5
Cooper, Cyrus
e05f5612-b493-4273-9b71-9e0ce32bdad6

Westbury, Leo D., Syddall, Holly E., Fuggle, Nicholas, Dennison, Elaine M., Cauley, Jane A., Shiroma, Eric J., Fielding, Roger A., Newman, Anne B. and Cooper, Cyrus (2020) Long term rates of change in musculoskeletal aging and body composition: findings from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Calcified Tissue International, 106 (6), 616-624. (doi:10.1007/s00223-020-00679-2).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Musculoskeletal disorders are common among older people. Preventive strategies require understanding of age-related changes in strength, function and body composition, including how they interrelate. We have described, and examined associations between, 9-year changes in these parameters among 2917 Health, Aging and Body Composition Study participants (aged 70-79 years). Appendicular lean mass (ALM), whole body fat mass and total hip BMD were ascertained using DXA; muscle strength by grip dynamometry; and muscle function by gait speed. For each characteristic annualised percentage changes were calculated; measures of conditional change (independent of baseline) were derived and their interrelationships were examined using Pearson correlations; proportion of variance at 9-year follow-up explained by baseline level was estimated; and mean trajectories in relation to age were estimated using linear mixed models. Analyses were stratified by sex. Median [lower quartile, upper quartile] annual percentage declines were grip strength (1.5 [0.0, 2.9]), gait speed (2.0 [0.6, 3.7]), ALM (0.7 [0.1, 1.4]), fat mass (0.4 [- 1.1, 1.9]) and hip BMD (0.5 [0.0, 1.1]). Declines were linear for ALM and accelerated over time for other characteristics. Most conditional change measures were positively correlated, most strongly between ALM, fat mass and hip BMD (r > 0.28). Proportion of variation at follow-up explained by baseline was lower for grip strength and gait speed (39-52%) than other characteristics (69-86%). Strength and function declined more rapidly, and were less correlated between baseline and follow-up, than measures of body composition. Therefore, broader intervention strategies to prevent loss of strength and function in later life are required as those targeting body composition alone may be insufficient.

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Accepted/In Press date: 19 February 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 3 March 2020
Keywords: Epidemiology, Frailty, Muscle, Osteoporosis, Sarcopenia

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 438407
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/438407
ISSN: 0171-967X
PURE UUID: 1899c820-a443-4f0b-8642-e4491ee564e6
ORCID for Holly E. Syddall: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-0171-0306
ORCID for Elaine M. Dennison: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-3048-4961
ORCID for Cyrus Cooper: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0003-3510-0709

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Date deposited: 09 Mar 2020 17:32
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 02:41

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Contributors

Author: Leo D. Westbury
Author: Nicholas Fuggle
Author: Jane A. Cauley
Author: Eric J. Shiroma
Author: Roger A. Fielding
Author: Anne B. Newman
Author: Cyrus Cooper ORCID iD

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