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A conceptual Framework for Gamified E-Learning Systems Acceptance by students in Saudi Arabian Universities

A conceptual Framework for Gamified E-Learning Systems Acceptance by students in Saudi Arabian Universities
A conceptual Framework for Gamified E-Learning Systems Acceptance by students in Saudi Arabian Universities
Universities face many challenges in trying to provide quality and equitable learning to the ever-increasing student numbers efficiently. Most of the challenges relate to limited financing, infrastructure and space, human resources and instruction materials. This calls for increasing resourcing of universities. Unfortunately, most of the literature indicates significant cuts in public funding to universities albeit their enrolment is rising. This necessitates among others rethinking the delivery of higher education. Increasingly, the use of the traditional classroom as the sole means to deliver higher education is proving ineffective and inefficient.

The advancements in information and communication technology (ICT) have created more opportunities for universities to complement the traditional classroom to deliver their curricula. In Saudi Arabia, many universities continue to adopt e-learning systems to deliver their curricula. Nonetheless, reports highlight unwillingness to adopt e-learning systems by students and sometimes staff as a critical challenge. Using a mixed methods approach, this study draws on primary data from Saudi University Students and Lecturers, and empirical literature to propose a Gamified E-learning Systems Acceptance Framework (GELSAF) through a critical analysis of the most potent factors that affect students’ intention to accept e-learning systems in Saudi Arabian universities.

Through expert interviews, students’ questionnaire and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), a Gamified E-learning Systems Acceptance Framework (GELSAF3) was generated. Within the GELSAF3 it was found that Game Elements (GE), Perceived Usefulness (PU), Computer Self-Efficacy (CSE), Subject Norm (SN), and Pleasure (PLS) significantly influence the students’ Intention to Use (ITU) gamified e-learning systems in a positive way. On the other hand, whereas Image (IMG) is positively associated with ITU, it does not significantly influence ITU. Based on the magnitudes of the standardized Beta Coefficients and Critical Ratios, the findings indicate that CSE, PLS, and PU were the most influential factors on ITU. Unexpectedly, the measurement model for Facilitating Conditions (FC) did not converge during its estimation due to having fewer measurement items and hence this factor was excluded from further analysis.

The findings of this research were found to be of significant consequence to particularly Saudi Universities which have tried to adopt e-learning systems with limited success. Also, the research provides sound evidence to various stakeholders of higher education that could change the landscape for e-learning systems in Saudi Universities positively. In terms of policy, the study encourages stakeholders to among others have policy frameworks that enable: assessment of their students’ needs with regards to e-learning and to identify the key features necessary in such an e-learning system; blending of learning with educational games and play activities; investments in enabling their students to become fully skilled with computers and IT so as to have a positive self-perception of computer skills mastery; taking care of the popular norms of the students’ community and also anticipate the dynamics within such norms to inform decisions for adopting gamified e-learning systems.
University of Southampton
Alzahrani, Abdullah I.A.
a2f6b6bb-ddfe-49b6-a56b-8d72b2ffd7c2
Alzahrani, Abdullah I.A.
a2f6b6bb-ddfe-49b6-a56b-8d72b2ffd7c2
Wills, Gary
3a594558-6921-4e82-8098-38cd8d4e8aa0

Alzahrani, Abdullah I.A. (2019) A conceptual Framework for Gamified E-Learning Systems Acceptance by students in Saudi Arabian Universities. University of Southampton, Doctoral Thesis, 189pp.

Record type: Thesis (Doctoral)

Abstract

Universities face many challenges in trying to provide quality and equitable learning to the ever-increasing student numbers efficiently. Most of the challenges relate to limited financing, infrastructure and space, human resources and instruction materials. This calls for increasing resourcing of universities. Unfortunately, most of the literature indicates significant cuts in public funding to universities albeit their enrolment is rising. This necessitates among others rethinking the delivery of higher education. Increasingly, the use of the traditional classroom as the sole means to deliver higher education is proving ineffective and inefficient.

The advancements in information and communication technology (ICT) have created more opportunities for universities to complement the traditional classroom to deliver their curricula. In Saudi Arabia, many universities continue to adopt e-learning systems to deliver their curricula. Nonetheless, reports highlight unwillingness to adopt e-learning systems by students and sometimes staff as a critical challenge. Using a mixed methods approach, this study draws on primary data from Saudi University Students and Lecturers, and empirical literature to propose a Gamified E-learning Systems Acceptance Framework (GELSAF) through a critical analysis of the most potent factors that affect students’ intention to accept e-learning systems in Saudi Arabian universities.

Through expert interviews, students’ questionnaire and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM), a Gamified E-learning Systems Acceptance Framework (GELSAF3) was generated. Within the GELSAF3 it was found that Game Elements (GE), Perceived Usefulness (PU), Computer Self-Efficacy (CSE), Subject Norm (SN), and Pleasure (PLS) significantly influence the students’ Intention to Use (ITU) gamified e-learning systems in a positive way. On the other hand, whereas Image (IMG) is positively associated with ITU, it does not significantly influence ITU. Based on the magnitudes of the standardized Beta Coefficients and Critical Ratios, the findings indicate that CSE, PLS, and PU were the most influential factors on ITU. Unexpectedly, the measurement model for Facilitating Conditions (FC) did not converge during its estimation due to having fewer measurement items and hence this factor was excluded from further analysis.

The findings of this research were found to be of significant consequence to particularly Saudi Universities which have tried to adopt e-learning systems with limited success. Also, the research provides sound evidence to various stakeholders of higher education that could change the landscape for e-learning systems in Saudi Universities positively. In terms of policy, the study encourages stakeholders to among others have policy frameworks that enable: assessment of their students’ needs with regards to e-learning and to identify the key features necessary in such an e-learning system; blending of learning with educational games and play activities; investments in enabling their students to become fully skilled with computers and IT so as to have a positive self-perception of computer skills mastery; taking care of the popular norms of the students’ community and also anticipate the dynamics within such norms to inform decisions for adopting gamified e-learning systems.

Text
A conceptual Framework for Gamified E-Learning Systems Acceptance by students in Saudi Arabian Universities - Version of Record
Restricted to Repository staff only until 2 February 2022.
Available under License University of Southampton Thesis Licence.

More information

Published date: April 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 438582
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/438582
PURE UUID: 23b9e0da-d763-41c3-9647-deed98c5c211
ORCID for Abdullah I.A. Alzahrani: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4718-7568
ORCID for Gary Wills: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5771-4088

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 17 Mar 2020 17:34
Last modified: 18 Mar 2020 01:37

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