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Electron tomography analysis of thylakoid assembly and fission in chloroplasts of a single-cell C4 plant, Bienertia sinuspersici

Electron tomography analysis of thylakoid assembly and fission in chloroplasts of a single-cell C4 plant, Bienertia sinuspersici
Electron tomography analysis of thylakoid assembly and fission in chloroplasts of a single-cell C4 plant, Bienertia sinuspersici
Bienertia sinuspersici is a single-cell C4 plant species of which chlorenchyma cells have two distinct groups of chloroplasts spatially segregated in the cytoplasm. The central vacuole encloses most chloroplasts at the cell center and confines the rest of the chloroplasts near the plasma membrane. Young chlorenchyma cells, however, do not have large vacuoles and their chloroplasts are homogenous. Therefore, maturing Bienertia chlorenchyma cells provide a unique opportunity to investigate chloroplast proliferation in the central cluster and the remodeling of chloroplasts that have been displaced by the vacuole to the cell periphery. Chloroplast numbers and sizes increased, more notably, during later stages of maturation than the early stages. Electron tomography analyses indicated that chloroplast enlargement is sustained by thylakoid growth and that invaginations from the inner envelope membrane contributed to thylakoid assembly. Grana stacks acquired more layers, differentiating them from stroma thylakoids as central chloroplasts matured. In peripheral chloroplasts, however, grana stacks stretched out to a degree that the distinction between grana stacks and stroma thylakoids was obscured. In central chloroplasts undergoing division, thylakoids inside the cleavage furrow were kinked and severed. Grana stacks in the division zone were disrupted, and large complexes in their membranes were dislocated, suggesting the existence of a thylakoid fission machinery.
2045-2322
Mai, Keith Ka Ki
6476000e-7848-4572-be40-41c4821f448f
Yeung, Wai Tsun
2f2aa99b-4674-409c-abd6-7381a3e56d95
Han, Sang Yun
ac8975c2-5043-46b2-b4f6-ddd92ad8b6a8
Cai, Xiaohao
de483445-45e9-4b21-a4e8-b0427fc72cee
Hwang, Inhwan
debe55c4-f08a-4e4d-b6b5-0c05e0fad1b4
Kang, Byung Ho
edffb988-b62b-4b47-99b7-523ff5630895
Mai, Keith Ka Ki
6476000e-7848-4572-be40-41c4821f448f
Yeung, Wai Tsun
2f2aa99b-4674-409c-abd6-7381a3e56d95
Han, Sang Yun
ac8975c2-5043-46b2-b4f6-ddd92ad8b6a8
Cai, Xiaohao
de483445-45e9-4b21-a4e8-b0427fc72cee
Hwang, Inhwan
debe55c4-f08a-4e4d-b6b5-0c05e0fad1b4
Kang, Byung Ho
edffb988-b62b-4b47-99b7-523ff5630895

Mai, Keith Ka Ki, Yeung, Wai Tsun, Han, Sang Yun, Cai, Xiaohao, Hwang, Inhwan and Kang, Byung Ho (2019) Electron tomography analysis of thylakoid assembly and fission in chloroplasts of a single-cell C4 plant, Bienertia sinuspersici. Scientific Reports, 9 (1), [19640]. (doi:10.1038/s41598-019-56083-w).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Bienertia sinuspersici is a single-cell C4 plant species of which chlorenchyma cells have two distinct groups of chloroplasts spatially segregated in the cytoplasm. The central vacuole encloses most chloroplasts at the cell center and confines the rest of the chloroplasts near the plasma membrane. Young chlorenchyma cells, however, do not have large vacuoles and their chloroplasts are homogenous. Therefore, maturing Bienertia chlorenchyma cells provide a unique opportunity to investigate chloroplast proliferation in the central cluster and the remodeling of chloroplasts that have been displaced by the vacuole to the cell periphery. Chloroplast numbers and sizes increased, more notably, during later stages of maturation than the early stages. Electron tomography analyses indicated that chloroplast enlargement is sustained by thylakoid growth and that invaginations from the inner envelope membrane contributed to thylakoid assembly. Grana stacks acquired more layers, differentiating them from stroma thylakoids as central chloroplasts matured. In peripheral chloroplasts, however, grana stacks stretched out to a degree that the distinction between grana stacks and stroma thylakoids was obscured. In central chloroplasts undergoing division, thylakoids inside the cleavage furrow were kinked and severed. Grana stacks in the division zone were disrupted, and large complexes in their membranes were dislocated, suggesting the existence of a thylakoid fission machinery.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 2 December 2019
e-pub ahead of print date: 23 December 2019

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 438777
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/438777
ISSN: 2045-2322
PURE UUID: 1c9ef82b-e0e6-4ee0-92c1-cb71ebfbc681

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Date deposited: 24 Mar 2020 17:30
Last modified: 14 Sep 2021 20:40

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Contributors

Author: Keith Ka Ki Mai
Author: Wai Tsun Yeung
Author: Sang Yun Han
Author: Xiaohao Cai
Author: Inhwan Hwang
Author: Byung Ho Kang

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