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Maternal glycemia during pregnancy and offspring abdominal adiposity measured by MRI in the neonatal period and preschool years: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) prospective mother-offspring birth cohort study

Maternal glycemia during pregnancy and offspring abdominal adiposity measured by MRI in the neonatal period and preschool years: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) prospective mother-offspring birth cohort study
Maternal glycemia during pregnancy and offspring abdominal adiposity measured by MRI in the neonatal period and preschool years: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) prospective mother-offspring birth cohort study
Background
Gestational diabetes is associated with unfavorable body fat distribution in offspring. However, less is known about the effects across the range of maternal gestational glycemia on offspring abdominal adiposity (AA) in infancy and early childhood.

Objectives
This study determined the association between gestational glycemia and offspring AA measured by MRI in the neonatal period and during the preschool years.

Methods
Participants were mother–offspring pairs from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) prospective cohort study. Children who underwent MRI within 2 wk postdelivery (n = 305) and/or at preschool age, 4.5 y (n = 273), and whose mothers had a 2-h 75-g oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 26–28 weeks of gestation were included. AA measured by adipose tissue compartment volumes—abdominal superficial (sSAT), deep subcutaneous (dSAT), and internal (IAT) adipose tissue—was quantified from MRI images.

Results
Adjusting for potential confounders including maternal prepregnancy BMI, each 1-mmol/L increase in maternal fasting glucose was associated with higher SD scores for sSAT (0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.86), dSAT (0.65; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.87), and IAT (0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.86) in neonates. Similarly, each 1-mmol/L increase in 2-h OGTT glucose was associated with higher neonatal sSAT (0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.19) and dSAT (0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.17). These associations were stronger in female neonates but only persisted in girls between fasting glucose, and sSAT and dSAT at 4.5 y.

Conclusions
A positive association between maternal glycemia and neonatal AA was observed across the whole range of maternal mid-gestation glucose concentrations. These findings may lend further support to efforts toward optimizing maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy. The study also provides suggestive evidence on sex differences in the impact of maternal glycemia, which merits further confirmation in other studies.

This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.
early infancy, maternal glucose, mid-gestation, offspring abdominal adipose tissue compartment, pediatrics
0002-9165
39-47
Mya, Tint
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Sadananthan, Suresh
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Soh, Shu-E
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Aris, Izzuddin M.
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Michael, Navin
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Tan, Kok H.
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Shek, Lynette P.
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Yap, Fabian
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Gluckman, Peter D.
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Chong, Y-S
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Godfrey, Keith
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Velan, Sendhil
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Chan, Shiao-Yng
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Eriksson, Johan G.
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Fortier, Marielle V.
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Zhang, Cuilin
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Lee, Yung Seng
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Mya, Tint
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Sadananthan, Suresh
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Soh, Shu-E
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Aris, Izzuddin M.
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Michael, Navin
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Tan, Kok H.
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Shek, Lynette P.
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Yap, Fabian
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Gluckman, Peter D.
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Chong, Y-S
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Godfrey, Keith
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Velan, Sendhil
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Chan, Shiao-Yng
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Eriksson, Johan G.
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Fortier, Marielle V.
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Zhang, Cuilin
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Lee, Yung Seng
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Mya, Tint, Sadananthan, Suresh, Soh, Shu-E, Aris, Izzuddin M., Michael, Navin, Tan, Kok H., Shek, Lynette P., Yap, Fabian, Gluckman, Peter D., Chong, Y-S, Godfrey, Keith, Velan, Sendhil, Chan, Shiao-Yng, Eriksson, Johan G., Fortier, Marielle V., Zhang, Cuilin and Lee, Yung Seng (2020) Maternal glycemia during pregnancy and offspring abdominal adiposity measured by MRI in the neonatal period and preschool years: The Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) prospective mother-offspring birth cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 112 (1), 39-47. (doi:10.1093/ajcn/nqaa055).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Background
Gestational diabetes is associated with unfavorable body fat distribution in offspring. However, less is known about the effects across the range of maternal gestational glycemia on offspring abdominal adiposity (AA) in infancy and early childhood.

Objectives
This study determined the association between gestational glycemia and offspring AA measured by MRI in the neonatal period and during the preschool years.

Methods
Participants were mother–offspring pairs from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes) prospective cohort study. Children who underwent MRI within 2 wk postdelivery (n = 305) and/or at preschool age, 4.5 y (n = 273), and whose mothers had a 2-h 75-g oral-glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) at 26–28 weeks of gestation were included. AA measured by adipose tissue compartment volumes—abdominal superficial (sSAT), deep subcutaneous (dSAT), and internal (IAT) adipose tissue—was quantified from MRI images.

Results
Adjusting for potential confounders including maternal prepregnancy BMI, each 1-mmol/L increase in maternal fasting glucose was associated with higher SD scores for sSAT (0.66; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.86), dSAT (0.65; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.87), and IAT (0.64; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.86) in neonates. Similarly, each 1-mmol/L increase in 2-h OGTT glucose was associated with higher neonatal sSAT (0.11; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.19) and dSAT (0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.17). These associations were stronger in female neonates but only persisted in girls between fasting glucose, and sSAT and dSAT at 4.5 y.

Conclusions
A positive association between maternal glycemia and neonatal AA was observed across the whole range of maternal mid-gestation glucose concentrations. These findings may lend further support to efforts toward optimizing maternal hyperglycemia during pregnancy. The study also provides suggestive evidence on sex differences in the impact of maternal glycemia, which merits further confirmation in other studies.

This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.

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Maternal glycemia during pregnancy and offspring abdominal adiposity measured by MRI in the neonatal period and preschool years - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 24 January 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 27 March 2020
Keywords: early infancy, maternal glucose, mid-gestation, offspring abdominal adipose tissue compartment, pediatrics

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 439116
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/439116
ISSN: 0002-9165
PURE UUID: 45ff9563-616a-4743-89cd-4ac130e0efe3
ORCID for Keith Godfrey: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-4643-0618

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 03 Apr 2020 16:31
Last modified: 26 Nov 2021 06:55

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Contributors

Author: Tint Mya
Author: Suresh Sadananthan
Author: Shu-E Soh
Author: Izzuddin M. Aris
Author: Navin Michael
Author: Kok H. Tan
Author: Lynette P. Shek
Author: Fabian Yap
Author: Peter D. Gluckman
Author: Y-S Chong
Author: Keith Godfrey ORCID iD
Author: Sendhil Velan
Author: Shiao-Yng Chan
Author: Johan G. Eriksson
Author: Marielle V. Fortier
Author: Cuilin Zhang
Author: Yung Seng Lee

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