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Are anti-smoking social norms associated with tobacco control mass media campaigns, tax and policy changes?: Findings from an Australian serial cross-sectional population study of smokers

Are anti-smoking social norms associated with tobacco control mass media campaigns, tax and policy changes?: Findings from an Australian serial cross-sectional population study of smokers
Are anti-smoking social norms associated with tobacco control mass media campaigns, tax and policy changes?: Findings from an Australian serial cross-sectional population study of smokers

BACKGROUND: Anti-smoking social norms are associated with subsequent quitting behaviours. We examined if exposure to tobacco control advertisements and policy changes predict subjective (perceived disapproval of smoking among close family and friends) and internalised injunctive norms (embarrassed about telling others you are a smoker).

METHODS: A serial cross-sectional population survey of Australian adult smokers (n=6649; 2012 to 2015). Logistic regression analyses examined associations of social norms with exposure to different types of tobacco control advertisements, tax increases and other tobacco control policies, adjusting for key demographic, smoking and media exposure covariates. Interaction analyses examined differences by age and socioeconomic status (SES).

RESULTS: Greater past month exposure to predominantly fear-evoking advertisements was associated with increased odds of perceiving disapproval (per 1000 gross rating points: adjusted OR (AOR) 2.69, 95% CI: 1.34 to 5.39), while exposure to advertisements evoking multiple negative emotions (fear, guilt, sadness) reduced perceived disapproval (AOR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.87). Increased perceived disapproval was also associated with anticipation (AOR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.88), and implementation of a series of annual 12.5% tobacco tax rises (AOR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.94). Associations were consistent across age and SES. There were no associations nor subgroup interactions between advertisement exposure or policy changes and feeling embarrassed about telling others you are a smoker.

CONCLUSION: Smokers' perceptions of family and friends' disapproval of their smoking was more common after exposure to fear-evoking tobacco control campaigns and after large tobacco tax increases were announced and implemented.

age groups, population survey, social norms, socio-economic status, tax, tobacco control advertisements, tobacco control policy changes
0964-4563
1-8
Durkin, Sarah J.
7c141b8d-75e2-47c9-a740-e851d00b7244
Schoenaker, Danielle
84b96b87-4070-45a5-9777-5a1e4e45e818
Brennan, Emily
68e1aade-69f9-4243-9edb-e84ae5561e7d
Bayly, Megan
39e07d08-6bf1-4a3d-9231-e55f7d8d6ae6
Wakefield, Melanie A.
04f28589-7ba5-4583-bf6c-2d25d1b3e0fa
Durkin, Sarah J.
7c141b8d-75e2-47c9-a740-e851d00b7244
Schoenaker, Danielle
84b96b87-4070-45a5-9777-5a1e4e45e818
Brennan, Emily
68e1aade-69f9-4243-9edb-e84ae5561e7d
Bayly, Megan
39e07d08-6bf1-4a3d-9231-e55f7d8d6ae6
Wakefield, Melanie A.
04f28589-7ba5-4583-bf6c-2d25d1b3e0fa

Durkin, Sarah J., Schoenaker, Danielle, Brennan, Emily, Bayly, Megan and Wakefield, Melanie A. (2020) Are anti-smoking social norms associated with tobacco control mass media campaigns, tax and policy changes?: Findings from an Australian serial cross-sectional population study of smokers. Tobacco Control, 1-8, [2019055325]. (doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2019-055325).

Record type: Article

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Anti-smoking social norms are associated with subsequent quitting behaviours. We examined if exposure to tobacco control advertisements and policy changes predict subjective (perceived disapproval of smoking among close family and friends) and internalised injunctive norms (embarrassed about telling others you are a smoker).

METHODS: A serial cross-sectional population survey of Australian adult smokers (n=6649; 2012 to 2015). Logistic regression analyses examined associations of social norms with exposure to different types of tobacco control advertisements, tax increases and other tobacco control policies, adjusting for key demographic, smoking and media exposure covariates. Interaction analyses examined differences by age and socioeconomic status (SES).

RESULTS: Greater past month exposure to predominantly fear-evoking advertisements was associated with increased odds of perceiving disapproval (per 1000 gross rating points: adjusted OR (AOR) 2.69, 95% CI: 1.34 to 5.39), while exposure to advertisements evoking multiple negative emotions (fear, guilt, sadness) reduced perceived disapproval (AOR 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42 to 0.87). Increased perceived disapproval was also associated with anticipation (AOR 1.38, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.88), and implementation of a series of annual 12.5% tobacco tax rises (AOR 1.41, 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.94). Associations were consistent across age and SES. There were no associations nor subgroup interactions between advertisement exposure or policy changes and feeling embarrassed about telling others you are a smoker.

CONCLUSION: Smokers' perceptions of family and friends' disapproval of their smoking was more common after exposure to fear-evoking tobacco control campaigns and after large tobacco tax increases were announced and implemented.

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Accepted/In Press date: 8 January 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 8 April 2020
Keywords: age groups, population survey, social norms, socio-economic status, tax, tobacco control advertisements, tobacco control policy changes

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 441308
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/441308
ISSN: 0964-4563
PURE UUID: 80e6dae2-d571-4412-9ef5-364b7cf4bef0
ORCID for Danielle Schoenaker: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-7652-990X

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Date deposited: 09 Jun 2020 16:30
Last modified: 10 Jan 2022 03:21

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Contributors

Author: Sarah J. Durkin
Author: Emily Brennan
Author: Megan Bayly
Author: Melanie A. Wakefield

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