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Advances in human stem cell therapies: pre-clinical studies and the outlook for central nervous system regeneration

Advances in human stem cell therapies: pre-clinical studies and the outlook for central nervous system regeneration
Advances in human stem cell therapies: pre-clinical studies and the outlook for central nervous system regeneration
Cell transplantation has come to the forefront of regenerative medicine alongside the discovery and application of stem cells in both research and clinical settings. There are several types of stem cells currently being used for pre-clinical regenerative therapies, each with unique characteristics, benefits and limitations. This brief review will focus on recent basic science advancements made with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Both ESCs and iPSCs provide platforms for new neurons to replace dead and/or dying cells following injury. Due to their capacity for reprogramming and differentiation into any neuronal type, research in preclinical rodent models have shown that ESCs and iPSCs can integrate, survive and form connections in the nervous system similar to de novo cells. Going forward however, there are some limitations to consider with the use of either stem cell type. Ethically ESCs are not an ideal source of cells, genetically iPSCs are not ideal in terms of personalised treatment for those with certain genetic diseases the latter of which may guide regenerative medicine away from personalized stem cell based therapies and into optimized stem cell banks. Nonetheless, the potential of these stem cells in CNS regenerative therapy is only beginning to be appreciated. For example, through genetic modification, stem cells serve as ideal platforms to reintroduce missing or downregulated molecules into the nervous system to further induce regenerative growth. In this article, we highlight the limitations of stem cell based therapies whilst discussing some of the means of overcoming these limitations.
1673-5374
Forbes, Lindsey
78a4169d-f045-4817-973b-18bb9e511cda
Andrews, Melissa
ae987a2f-878e-4ae3-a7a3-a7170712096c
Forbes, Lindsey
78a4169d-f045-4817-973b-18bb9e511cda
Andrews, Melissa
ae987a2f-878e-4ae3-a7a3-a7170712096c

Forbes, Lindsey and Andrews, Melissa (2020) Advances in human stem cell therapies: pre-clinical studies and the outlook for central nervous system regeneration. Neural Regeneration Research. (In Press)

Record type: Review

Abstract

Cell transplantation has come to the forefront of regenerative medicine alongside the discovery and application of stem cells in both research and clinical settings. There are several types of stem cells currently being used for pre-clinical regenerative therapies, each with unique characteristics, benefits and limitations. This brief review will focus on recent basic science advancements made with embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Both ESCs and iPSCs provide platforms for new neurons to replace dead and/or dying cells following injury. Due to their capacity for reprogramming and differentiation into any neuronal type, research in preclinical rodent models have shown that ESCs and iPSCs can integrate, survive and form connections in the nervous system similar to de novo cells. Going forward however, there are some limitations to consider with the use of either stem cell type. Ethically ESCs are not an ideal source of cells, genetically iPSCs are not ideal in terms of personalised treatment for those with certain genetic diseases the latter of which may guide regenerative medicine away from personalized stem cell based therapies and into optimized stem cell banks. Nonetheless, the potential of these stem cells in CNS regenerative therapy is only beginning to be appreciated. For example, through genetic modification, stem cells serve as ideal platforms to reintroduce missing or downregulated molecules into the nervous system to further induce regenerative growth. In this article, we highlight the limitations of stem cell based therapies whilst discussing some of the means of overcoming these limitations.

Text
NRR-D-20-00083_R1 - Accepted Manuscript
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Accepted/In Press date: 23 May 2020

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 441377
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/441377
ISSN: 1673-5374
PURE UUID: 17b7df63-9d79-4614-b887-40f3db91bd41
ORCID for Melissa Andrews: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0001-5960-5619

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 11 Jun 2020 16:30
Last modified: 07 Oct 2020 02:13

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Contributors

Author: Lindsey Forbes
Author: Melissa Andrews ORCID iD

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