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Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: From membrane to nucleus and from bench to bedside

Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: From membrane to nucleus and from bench to bedside
Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: From membrane to nucleus and from bench to bedside

Inflammation is a normal part of the immune response and should be self-limiting. Excessive or unresolved inflammation is linked to tissue damage, pathology and ill health. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes produced from the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid are involved in inflammation. Fatty acids may also influence inflammatory processes through mechanisms not necessarily involving lipid mediators. The omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) possess a range of anti-inflammatory actions. Increased content of EPA and DHA in the membranes of cells involved in inflammation has effects on the physical nature of the membranes and on the formation of signalling platforms called lipid rafts. EPA and DHA interfere with arachidonic acid metabolism which yields prostaglandins and leukotrienes involved in inflammation. EPA gives rise to weak (e.g. less inflammatory) analogues and both EPA and DHA are substrates for synthesis of specialised pro-resolving mediators. Through their effects on early signalling events in membranes and on the profile of lipid mediators produced, EPA and DHA alter both intracellular and intercellular signals. Within cells this leads to altered patterns of gene expression and of protein production. The net result is decreased production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, proteases and enzymes. The anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving effects of EPA and DHA are relevant to both prevention and treatment of human diseases that have an inflammatory component. This has been widely studied in rheumatoid arthritis where there is good evidence that high doses of EPA+DHA reduce pain and other symptoms.

Cytokine, Eicosanoid, Fish oil, Inflammation, Omega-3, Resolution
0029-6651
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6
Calder, Philip
1797e54f-378e-4dcb-80a4-3e30018f07a6

Calder, Philip (2020) Omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids and inflammation: From membrane to nucleus and from bench to bedside. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. (doi:10.1017/S0029665120007077).

Record type: Article

Abstract

Inflammation is a normal part of the immune response and should be self-limiting. Excessive or unresolved inflammation is linked to tissue damage, pathology and ill health. Prostaglandins and leukotrienes produced from the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid are involved in inflammation. Fatty acids may also influence inflammatory processes through mechanisms not necessarily involving lipid mediators. The omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) possess a range of anti-inflammatory actions. Increased content of EPA and DHA in the membranes of cells involved in inflammation has effects on the physical nature of the membranes and on the formation of signalling platforms called lipid rafts. EPA and DHA interfere with arachidonic acid metabolism which yields prostaglandins and leukotrienes involved in inflammation. EPA gives rise to weak (e.g. less inflammatory) analogues and both EPA and DHA are substrates for synthesis of specialised pro-resolving mediators. Through their effects on early signalling events in membranes and on the profile of lipid mediators produced, EPA and DHA alter both intracellular and intercellular signals. Within cells this leads to altered patterns of gene expression and of protein production. The net result is decreased production of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, proteases and enzymes. The anti-inflammatory and inflammation resolving effects of EPA and DHA are relevant to both prevention and treatment of human diseases that have an inflammatory component. This has been widely studied in rheumatoid arthritis where there is good evidence that high doses of EPA+DHA reduce pain and other symptoms.

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More information

Accepted/In Press date: 4 June 2020
e-pub ahead of print date: 22 June 2020
Additional Information: Publisher Copyright: © 2020 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Cytokine, Eicosanoid, Fish oil, Inflammation, Omega-3, Resolution

Identifiers

Local EPrints ID: 441439
URI: http://eprints.soton.ac.uk/id/eprint/441439
ISSN: 0029-6651
PURE UUID: 229b87a6-76e0-4d1e-b349-5a1d07320149
ORCID for Philip Calder: ORCID iD orcid.org/0000-0002-6038-710X

Catalogue record

Date deposited: 12 Jun 2020 16:30
Last modified: 08 Oct 2022 04:01

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